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  • Changing Students, Changing Teaching

    1/1/00 - Stodolsky, Susan S., Grossman, Pamela L.

    Educators are searching for effective ways to meet the challenges posed by increased cultural diversity among students. We explore this issue at the high school level where concerns about subject matter and student diversity intersect sharply. A case study approach, augmented by a large sample survey, is used to understand the dynamics of adaptation to a changing student population. We document adaptations in curriculum, instruction, and assessment made by math and English teachers. We...

  • Closing Achievement Gaps: Roles and Tasks of Elementary School Counselors

    1/1/08 - Trusty, Jerry, Mellin, Elizabeth A., Herbert, James T.

    Achievement gaps among racial-ethnic and socioeconomic status groups are an enduring, pervasive, and multifaceted phenomenon. Therefore, efforts aimed at understanding and addressing these gaps must be developmentally and environmentally broad, involving numerous school counselor roles and tasks, including leadership, advocacy, collaboration, and strategic interventions. In this article, we first document achievement gap trends and then provide a framework for understanding and sequencing...

  • CLOSING THE ACHIEVEMENT GAP IN MATH: CONSIDERING EIGHTH GRADE ALGEBRA FOR ALL STUDENTS

    1/1/06 - Spielhagen, Frances R.

    Should all students study algebra in eighth grade? Would offering early access to algebra to all students help close the achievement gap among minority populations? Traditional educational policies that provide eighth grade algebra to selected students raise questions about equitable access to advanced opportunities for all students. Even when access appears to be equitable throughout a school district's population, undetected lapses in equity may occur related to identification procedures...

  • Closing the Achievement Gap in Math: The Long-Term Effects of Eighth-Grade Algebra

    1/1/06 - Spielhagen, Frances R.

    Recent changes in national and state mathematics standards have increased the level of algebraic thinking taught in younger grades. These changes have prompted more inclusive curriculum designs that open the opportunity to enroll in advanced mathematics courses at younger ages. Of particular interest to this study is the access to eighth-grade algebra, once traditionally reserved for select populations. This study examined long-term academic outcomes for students who did or did not enroll in...

  • Closing the Achievement Gap Through Evidence-Based Inquiry at Multiple Levels of the Education System

    1/1/07 - Timperley, Helen S., Parr, Judy M.

    A national literacy professional development project reduced the achievement gap for students experiencing difficulties in reading or writing in 91 of New Zealand's schools. It was based on two premises: coherence within and between the multiple levels of the schooling and educational administration systems and a focus on evidence-informed inquiry into effectiveness at each level of the system. Over the 2 years of the project's operation, these two premises interacted in ways that led to...

  • Closing the Achievement Gap Through Teacher Collaboration: Facilitating Multiple Trajectories of Teacher Learning

    1/1/07 - Levine, Thomas H., Marcus, Alan S.

    How should district and school leaders improve education for students traditionally underserved by public education: by increasing control over teaching and curriculum, or by empowering groups of teachers to have more collective autonomy, responsibility, and opportunities for professional learning? The second approach-promoting multiple trajectories of learning among groups of teachers-has advantages, as well as some challenges, as a means of closing various achievement gaps. Sociocultural...

  • Closing the Achievement Gap With Curriculum Enrichment and Differentiation: One School's Story

    1/1/08 - Beecher, Margaret, Sweeny, Sheelah M.

    This article summarizes a unique approach to reducing the achievement gap that strategically blended differentiated curriculum with schoolwide enrichment teaching and learning. The theories of enrichment and instructional differentiation were translated into practice in an elementary school that had previously embraced a remedial paradigm. This enrichment approach resulted in improved student achievement and the reduction of the achievement gap between rich and poor and among different...

  • Closing the Achievement Gap: Examining the Role of Cognitive Developmental Level in Academic Achievement

    1/1/06 - Cooper, Jennifer, Schleser, Robert

    The achievement gap in mathematics between African American and Caucasian students has been observed for several decades, though previous research has been unable to fully explain why the gap exists. Using a sample of 56 kindergarten and first grade students, this study examined the role that cognitive developmental level plays in the achievement gap. Results indicated that African American students scored significantly lower than the Caucasian students on a test of mathematical achievement...

  • Closing the Achievement Gap: Lessons From Illinois' Golden Spike High-Poverty High-Performing Schools

    1/1/04 - McGee, Glenn W.

    The achievement gap is the single most critical issue in American education. This study illustrates the difference in academic performance between low-income children and their peers, between minority children and their classmates, and between those schools that serve a majority of children from low-income families and those that serve a more advantaged population. Using a research framework, the author identifies and examines Golden Spike schools-Illinois schools that have a sustained...

  • Closing the Achievement Gap: The Association of Racial Climate with Achievement and Behavioral Outcomes

    1/1/07 - Mattison, Erica, Aber, Mark

    This study investigated the relationship between school racial climate and students’ self-reports of academic and discipline outcomes, including whether racial climate mediated and/or moderated the relationship between race and outcomes. Using the Racial Climate Survey-High School Version (M. Aber et al., unpublished), data were gathered from African American ( n = 382) and European American students ( n = 1456) regarding their perceptions of racial climate. About 18% of the respondents...

  • Closing the Achievement Gap: The Experience of a Middle School

    1/1/07 - Larocque, Michelle

    The accountability imperative requires schools to evaluate the effectiveness of educational programs. Florida answered the accountability imperative by instituting statewide objective assessments and assigning grades to schools. The latter move led to several initiatives concerning the practices that improve schools in Florida. This article describes how leadership, community involvement, data-driven decision making, and the celebration of diversity reversed a negative trend in the academic...

  • Closing the Mathematics Achievement Gap in High-Poverty Middle Schools: Enablers and Constraints

    1/1/06 - Balfanz, Robert, Byrnes, Vaughan

    The mathematics achievement levels of U.S. students fall far behind those of other developed nations; within the United States itself, the students who are falling behind come predominantly from high-poverty and high-minority areas. This article reports on a series of analyses that followed 4 cohorts of students from 3 such schools through the 5th to 8th grades, where studies have found the mathematics achievement gap to develop most rapidly. The cohorts followed in these analyses attended...

  • Coincidence or conspiracy? Whiteness, policy and the persistence of the Black/White achievement gap

    1/1/08 - Gillborn, David

    Adopting an approach shaped by critical race theory (CRT) the paper proposes a radical analysis of the nature of race inequality in the English educational system. Focusing on the relative achievements of White school leavers and their Black (African Caribbean) peers, it is argued that long standing Black/White inequalities have been obscured by a disproportionate focus on students in receipt of free school meals (FSMs). Simultaneously the media increasingly present Whites as race victims...

  • Construction Sites: Excavating Race, Class, and Gender Among Urban Youth

    1/1/00 - Weis, L. & Fine, M., Ayers, William
  • Creating Schools Where Race Does Not Predict Achievement: The Role and Significance of Race in the Racial Achievement Gap

    1/1/08 - Noguera, Pedro A.

    This article explores the ways in which race is implicated in efforts to address the achievement gap in U.S. schools. Through an analysis of the theoretical and historical issues that have framed the relationship between race and intellectual ability, the author explains why the effort to close the achievement gap is politically and socially significant. The efforts of two suburban school districts to address the achievement gap is presented to illustrate why some schools are making progress...

  • Development of the Literacy Achievement Gap: A Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Through Third Grade

    1/1/07 - Foster, Wayne A., Miller, Merideth

    Purpose: The major goal of this study was to specify the developmental trajectories for phonics and early text comprehension skills of children from kindergarten through third grade. Method: Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (N = 12,261) were used in this study. The participants were divided into 3 school readiness groups based on an assessment of literacy skill development at the time of entrance into kindergarten. The different groups were tracked on phonics and text...

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