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  • More Than One Gap: Dropout Rate Gaps Between and Among Black, Hispanic, and White Students

    1/1/07 - Carpenter Ii, Dick M., Ramirez, Al

    The achievement gap, traditionally measured by test scores, also can be documented by dropout behavior. Examining dropout behavior among Black, White, and Hispanic students, with a particular focus on gaps within groups and not just between Whites and minorities, shows a clearer picture of the achievement gap. The results of our study show multiple achievement gaps both between and within groups, ultimately concluding that within-group gaps were often more significant than gaps between...

  • Neighborhood and School Factors in the School Performance of Immigrants’ Children

    1/1/07 - Pong, Suet-ling, Hao, Lingxin

    This article examines the effects of neighborhoods and schools on the achievement gaps between adolescents of different nativities and ethnicities. We show that neighborhood and school conditions are better for natives' than for immigrants' children, and they are the worst for Hispanic immigrants. Using cross-classified hierarchical models, we find that introducing neighborhood and school characteristics helps to account for the disadvantage of Mexican immigrants' children but to reveal the...

  • Notice of Language Assistance Dear Colleague Letter on the Nondiscriminatory Administration of School Discipline

    1/8/14

    The U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Department of Justice (Departments) are issuing this guidance to assist public elementary and secondary schools in meeting their obligations under Federal law to administer student discipline without discriminating on the basis of race, color, or national origin. The Departments recognize the commitment and effort of educators across the United States to provide their students with an excellent education. The Departments believe that guidance on...

  • On Interpreting Research on Stereotype Threat and Test Performance

    1/1/05 - Sackett, Paul R., Hardison, Chaitra M., Cullen, Michael J.

    The authors comment on the comments (see records 2005-03019-016; 2005-03019-017; 2005-03019-018) made on their original article entitled <i>On Interpreting Stereotype Threat as Accounting for African American-White Differences on Cognitive Tests</i> (see record 2004-10043-001). The authors welcome the thoughtful insights of Wicherts, Helms, and Cohen and Sherman, and they hope that these comments stimulate further critical analysis of methodological issues associated with stereotype threat...

  • Opportunity to Learn and English Learner Achievement: Is Increased Content Exposure Beneficial?

    1/1/08 - Aguirre-Munoz, Zenaida, Boscardin, Christy Kim

    This investigation examined the impact of opportunity to learn content and skills targeted by a writing assessment on the achievement of English learners (ELs), including the potential for differential impact of increased exposure to literary analysis and writing instruction. Results revealed several factors contributing to students' writing performance. Student-level and teacher-level variables were found to significantly contribute to writing performance. Although exposure to writing and...

  • Origin myths: Narratives of authority, resistance, disability, and law.

    1/1/93 - Engel, D. M.
  • PART III: CREATING MULTICULTURAL CLASSROOMS: Under-Prepared Students: Essentials beyond Academics

    1/1/07 - Ford, Theron N., Glimps, Blanche, Giallourakis, Angie

    Teacher education programs continue to struggle with preparing highly qualified teachers ready to meet the academic, cultural, exceptionality and linguistic challenges, which are increasingly the reality of American's classrooms. Despite increased academic rigor in such programs, many emerging teachers are still ill prepared to each effectively students from cultural and racial backgrounds different from their own. The article asserts that this is due in part to a lack of an appropriate...

  • Poverty and educational achievement: why do children from low-income families tend to do less well at school?

    1/1/07 - West, Anne

    There is an achievement gap between children from poor family backgrounds and others; this is not unique to the UK, but found in all other countries of the OECD. This article examines the reasons why children from poorer backgrounds do not, on average, do as well academically at school as those from more advantaged backgrounds. It argues that the family, income and material resources are highly significant, although schools also play an important role. Possible implications for policy are...

  • Powerful Pedagogy: Learning Communities at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    1/1/08 - Shapiro, Nancy S.

    A recent deluge of national studies and reports warns the United States that our future hangs in the balance because our educational system is failing our society. These studies cite projections that American competitiveness is at risk because we have failed to address a growing demographic inevitability—that the segment of the population that is growing the fastest is comprised of those students who are most at risk in our educational system. An expanding body of research (including the...

  • Preschool Antecedents of Mathematics Achievement of Latinos: The Influence of Family Resources, Early Literacy Experiences, and Preschool Attendance

    1/1/07 - Lopez, Edward M., Gallimore, Ronald, Garnier, Helen

    Seventy-three Latino middle school students participated in a longitudinal study of the preschool antecedents of their mathematics achievement. Path analysis indicated that family resources (parents' educational level, occupation, and income) predicted home literacy activities, which predicted combined early Spanish literacy and English language proficiencies at kindergarten entry, which predicted elementary mathematics achievement, which in turn predicted middle school mathematics...

  • Pushing Past the Achievement Gap: An Essay on the Language of Deficit

    1/1/07 - Ladson-Billings, Gloria

    Despite the intense focus on the achievement gap that exists between African American, Latino, and other students of color and their White counterparts, the achievement gap discourse keeps us locked in the deficit paradigm. This article challenges us to look at the inherent fallacies of the achievement gap discourse and place students' academic struggles in the larger context of social failure including health, wealth, and funding gaps that impede their school success. [ABSTRACT FROM...

  • Race, inequality and educational accountability: the irony of 'No Child Left Behind'

    1/1/07 - Darling-Hammond, Linda

    The No Child Left Behind Act, the major education initiative of the Bush Administration, was intended to raise educational achievement and close the racial/ethnic achievement gap. Its strategies include focusing schools' attention on raising test scores, mandating better qualified teachers and providing educational choice. Unfortunately, the complex requirements of the law have failed to achieve these goals, and have provoked a number of unintended negative consequences which frequently harm...

  • Race, School Achievement, and Educational Inequality: Toward a Student-Based Inquiry Perspective

    1/1/07 - Wiggan, Greg

    Over the past four decades, there have been numerous discussions on student achievement and school failure. Within this time, the debate over the causes and consequences of racial differences in achievement has been at the heart of the nation's social and political life. The author discusses the major developments in achievement research over the past century and examines the foremost explanations given for racial differences in school performance, namely, genetic deficiency, social class...

  • Recursive Processes in Self-Affirmation: Intervening to Close the Minority Achievement Gap

    1/1/09 - Cohen, Geoffrey L., Garcia, Julio, Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie, Apfel, Nancy, Brzustoski, Patricia

    A 2-year follow-up of a randomized field experiment previously reported in Science is presented. A subtle intervention to lessen minority students' psychological threat related to being negatively stereotyped in school was tested in an experiment conducted three times with three independent cohorts (N = 133, 149, and 134). The intervention, a series of brief but structured writing assignments focusing students on a self-affirming value, reduced the racial achievement gap. Over 2 years, the...

  • Reducing the Gap: Success for All and the Achievement of African American Students

    1/1/06 - Slavin, Robert E., Madden, Nancy A.

    Success for All is a comprehensive reform model that uses cooperative learning, tutoring, family support services, and extensive professional development to help high-poverty schools succeed with their students. This article reviews research on Success for All with African American students, focusing on evidence that Success for All reduces the achievement gap between African American and White students. More than 40 studies, including a national randomized experiment, have found positive...

  • Reducing the Racial Achievement Gap: A Social-Psychological Intervention

    1/1/06 - Cohen, Geoffrey L., Garcia, Julio, Apfel, Nancy, Master, Allison

    Two randomized field experiments tested a social-psychological intervention designed to improve minority student performance and increase our understanding of how psychological threat mediates performance in chronically evaluative real-world environments. We expected that the risk of confirming a negative stereotype aimed at one's group could undermine academic performance in minority students by elevating their level of psychological threat. We tested whether such psychological threat could...

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