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Tag: means

  • Development of the Literacy Achievement Gap: A Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Through Third Grade

    1/1/07 - Foster, Wayne A., Miller, Merideth

    Purpose: The major goal of this study was to specify the developmental trajectories for phonics and early text comprehension skills of children from kindergarten through third grade. Method: Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (N = 12,261) were used in this study. The participants were divided into 3 school readiness groups based on an assessment of literacy skill development at the time of entrance into kindergarten. The different groups were tracked on phonics and text...

  • Development of the Literacy Achievement Gap: A Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Through Third Grade

    1/1/07 - Foster, Wayne A., Miller, Merideth

    Purpose: The major goal of this study was to specify the developmental trajectories for phonics and early text comprehension skills of children from kindergarten through third grade. Method: Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (N = 12,261) were used in this study. The participants were divided into 3 school readiness groups based on an assessment of literacy skill development at the time of entrance into kindergarten. The different groups were tracked on phonics and text...

  • Early Childhood Education Interventions for Children with Disabilities Intervention Report: Phonological Awareness Training.

    1/1/12 - What Works Clearninghouse

    Phonological awareness, or the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, has been identiied as a key early literacy skill and precursor to reading. For the purposes of this review, phonological awareness training refers to any practice targeting young children’s phonological awareness abilities. Phonological awareness training can involve various activities that focus on teaching children to identify, detect, delete, segment, or blend segments of...

  • Encounter: Education for meaning and social justice

    1/1/06
  • High-Stakes Testing: Does the California High School Exit Exam Measure Up?

    1/1/05 - Callet, Valerie J.

    In 2002, President George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act. In addition to providing additional funding for schools and encouraging local autonomy, the new law focuses on accountability in an attempt to close the achievement gap for all students, leaving no child behind. Perhaps the most striking manifestation of Bush's new law is the amplified attention on high-stakes testing as a means to demonstrate accountability. The California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) is California's...

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    Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade

    1/28/11 - Shanahan, T., Callison, K., Carriere, C., Duke, N. K., Pearson, P. D., Schatschneider, C., &, Torgesen, J.

    The fundamental assumption in this guide is that the objective of reading instruction is to give young readers the tools they need to understand increasingly sophisticated material in all subjects from elementary through later years of school. The practices recommended in this guide are therefore not an end in themselves, but the means to developing sound ability in reading comprehension. With this principle in mind, teachers should prepare their reading lessons in a way that encourages...

  • Inside/outside: Teacher research and knowledge

    1/1/93 - Cochran-Smith, M., Lytle, S., Cochran-Smith, M., Lytle, S.

    The central concern of this book is the assumption that pedagogical knowledge is generated "outside-in"; that is, from the university, to be applied at schools. The first half of this book provides a thoughtful and thought-provoking conceptual framework for reading and understanding teacher research, exploring its history, potential, and relationship to university-based research. Cochran-Smith and Lytle argue that teacher research can transform, not simply add to, the present knowledge...

  • Introduction: The meanings of critical teacher preparation.

    1/1/96 - Beyer, L. E. , Landon E. Beyer
  • Locus of control, self-esteem, and field independence as predictors of school achievement among Anglo American and Mexican American children

    1/1/80 - Nelson, William, Knight, George P., Kagan, Spencer, Gumbiner, Jann

    Explored the relation of measures of locus of control, self-esteem, and field independence to the reading and math achievement of 170 Mexican-American and Anglo-American children. Ss were administered a battery of tests including the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire, the Self-Esteem Inventory, the man-in-the-frame test, and the California Achievement Tests. The Anglo-American/Mexican-American school achievement gap was confirmed, but no significant cultural difference on...

  • Meaning in context: Is there any other kind?

    1/1/79 - Mishler, E.
  • Meaning-making.

    1/1/88 - Carlsen, M. B.
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    Methods for assessing racial/ethnic disproportionality in special education: A technical assistance guide

    1/5/09 - Data Accountability Center,, Westat,

    “Many different methods of calculating disproportionality exist. Each of these methods represents a different way of reporting the same data, and each answers a different question about racial/ethnic representation in special education. This technical assistance guide focuses on two of the more common methods: composition and risk. (The authors) also discuss the risk ratio as a means for comparing risk. This technical assistance guide summarizes how to apply each of these methods...

  • Monetary incentives in support of academic achievement: Results of a randomized field trial involving high-achieving, low-resource, ethnically diverse urban adolescents

    1/1/05 - Spencer, Margaret Beale, Noll, Elizabeth, Cassidy, Elaine

    Significant resources have been directed at understanding and alleviating the achievement gap in education. Most programs focused on this aim rely on a top-down approach, including funding for infrastructure improvement, curriculum development, class size, and teacher salaries. This article presents findings from a randomized field trial that evaluates a bottom-up approach in which high-achieving students of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds from poor families are given monetary...

  • Negotiating Meaning in a Hospital Discourse Community.

    1/1/93 - Dautermann, Jennie., Rachel Spilka.
  • No Child Left Behind: Who Wins? Who Loses?

    1/1/05 - Arce, Josephine, Luna, Debra, Borjian, Ali, Conrad, Marguerite

    The article focuses on the 2002 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, signed by U.S. President George W. Bush, focusing on policy and distribution of funds to public schools. Proponents of the act claim that it aims to close the achievement gap by holding school districts and states accountable, encouraging the use of flexible educational approaches, and supporting parents' rights to school choice. However, one question arises about the means by which the U.S. administration's public school...

  • On The Meaning Of Variable.

    1/1/88 - Schroenfeld, A. H., Arcavi, A.
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