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    Disproportionate Representation of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Special Education: Measuring the Problem

    1/31/07 - Martha Countinho, Donald Oswald, Equity Alliance at ASU

    The author of this brief discusses that racial disproportionality in school disciplinary practices has a long history, and still continues today. In the last three decades, racial disproportionality in school suspensions has increased noticeably, especially in high socioeconomic status (SES) schools. Empirical evidence suggests that exclusionary discipline practices result in further exclusion, school failure, and dropout. Today, nationwide African American students are disproportionately...

  • Opportunity to Learn and English Learner Achievement: Is Increased Content Exposure Beneficial?

    1/1/08 - Aguirre-Munoz, Zenaida, Boscardin, Christy Kim

    This investigation examined the impact of opportunity to learn content and skills targeted by a writing assessment on the achievement of English learners (ELs), including the potential for differential impact of increased exposure to literary analysis and writing instruction. Results revealed several factors contributing to students' writing performance. Student-level and teacher-level variables were found to significantly contribute to writing performance. Although exposure to writing and...

  • Practical Guidelines for the Enducation of English Language Learners: Research-based recommendations for the use of accommodations in large-scale assessments

    1/1/06 - Francis, D.J., Rivera, M., Lesaux, N., Kieffer, M., & Rivera, H. , U.S. Department of Education

    The fundamental principles underlying the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001focus on high standards of learning and instruction with the goal of increasing academic achievement—reading and math in particular—within all identified subgroups in the K-12 population. One of these subgroups is the growing population of English Language Learners (ELLs). NCLB has increased awareness of the academic needs and achievement of ELLs as schools, districts, and states are held accountable for...

  • Accountability Standards, and the Growing Achievement Gap: Lessons from the Past Half-Century

    1/1/06 - Harris, Douglas N., Herrington, Carolyn D.

    The rise of accountability policies during the early 1990s coincided with an increase in the achievement gap between white and minority students, reversing decades of steady improvement in outcome equity. This article explores the policies that helped to reduce the achievement gap before 1990, the effects of the subsequent shift toward accountability, and what can be learned from past successes to guide the future development of accountability systems. An extensive review of research...

  • Accountability, Standards, and the Growing Achievement Gap: Lessons from the Past Half-Century

    1/1/06 - Harris, Douglas N., Herrington, Carolyn D.

    The rise of accountability policies during the early 1990s coincided with an increase in the achievement gap between white and minority students, reversing decades of steady improvement in outcome equity. This article explores the policies that helped to reduce the achievement gap before 1990, the effects of the subsequent shift toward accountability, and what can be learned from past successes to guide the future development of accountability systems. An extensive review of research...

  • Addressing the Achievement Gap Between Minority and Nonminority Children by Increasing Access to Gifted Programs

    1/1/04 - Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula, Lee, Seon-young, Ngoi, Mephie

    Project EXCITE is a collaborative program of a university-based gifted center and local school districts designed to prepare gifted minority elementary and middle school students for advanced tracks in math and science in high school. This paper describes the characteristics and components of the EXCITE program and gives data regarding the academic and school achievement of participating students over the past 3 years. Results showed that most of the students were retained in the program...

  • Addressing the Achievement Gap Between Minority and Nonminority Children by Increasing Access to Gifted Programs

    1/1/04 - Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula, Lee, Seon-Young, Ngoi, Mephie, Ngoi, Daphne

    Project EXCITE is a collaborative program of a university-based gifted center and local school districts designed to prepare gifted minority elementary and middle school students for advanced tracks in math and science in high school. This paper describes the characteristics and components of the EXCITE program and gives data regarding the academic and school achievement of participating students over the past 3 years. Results showed that most of the students were retained in the program...

  • Addressing the Achievement Gap Between Minority and Nonminority Children: Increasing Access and Achievement Through Project EXCITE

    1/1/06 - Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula

    Part of a special issue on underrepresented populations. The writer discusses Project Excite, which was developed with the aim of raising the achievement of gifted minority students in a large suburban school district of Chicago so that they could qualify for advanced programs and accelerated tracks in high school in math and science. After having discussed the elements of the project, she presents findings on the extent to which the project increased both minority student access to advanced...

  • Closing the Achievement Gap in Math: The Long-Term Effects of Eighth-Grade Algebra

    1/1/06 - Spielhagen, Frances R.

    Recent changes in national and state mathematics standards have increased the level of algebraic thinking taught in younger grades. These changes have prompted more inclusive curriculum designs that open the opportunity to enroll in advanced mathematics courses at younger ages. Of particular interest to this study is the access to eighth-grade algebra, once traditionally reserved for select populations. This study examined long-term academic outcomes for students who did or did not enroll in...

  • Does school accountability lead to improved student performance?

    1/1/05 - Hanushek, Eric A., Raymond, Margaret E.

    The leading school reform policy in the United States revolves around strong accountability of schools with consequences for performance. The federal government's involvement through the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 reinforces the prior movement of many states toward policies based on measured student achievement. Analysis of state achievement growth as measured by the National Assessment of Educational progress shows that accountability systems introduced during the 1990s had a clear...

  • Evaluation of Quality Teaching for English Learners (QTEL) Professional Development

    1/1/12 - Bos, J.M., Sanchez, R.C., Tseng, F., Rayyes, N., Ortiz, L., and Sinicrope, C.

    English language proficiency is critical to academic achievement in the United States. For several decades, educators and policymakers have explored strategies to ensure that English language learner students have access to rigorous academic content as much as non–English language learner students. Educating English language learner students is a challenge that has become a civil rights issue and a topic of federal legislation. In 1968, Congress passed the Bilingual Education Act...

  • Helping Struggling Middle School Literacy Learners Achieve Success

    1/1/09 - Palumbo, Anthony, Sanacore, Joseph

    Teachers can help minority children close the academic achievement gap in intermediate and middle school by combining literacy instruction and content-area material. This connection improves reading achievement and increases curriculum knowledge, even if students have previously experienced difficulty with primary school reading. Fortunately, upper-elementary and middle-level learners are still naturally curious, are developing cognitively, and have acquired some basic reading skills...

  • INCREASING PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AMONG ADOLESCENT AFRICAN AMERICAN MALES

    1/1/07 - Martin, Don, Martin, Magy, Gibson, Suzanne Semivan, Wilkins, Jonathan

    African American adolescents disproportionately perform poorly compared to peers in both behavioral and academic aspects of their educational experience. In this study, African American male students participated in an after-school program involving tutoring, group counseling, and various enrichment activities. All students were assessed regarding their behavioral changes using attendance, discipline referrals, suspensions, and expulsions reports. The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT...

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    Practical guidelines for the education of English language learners: Research-based recommendations for the use of accomodations in large scale assessments.

    1/5/09 - Francis, D., Rivera, M. , Lesaux, N., Kieffer, M., Rivera, H.

    Book 3 of 3: This book, released in October 2006, is the third in a series of three Practical Guidelines for the Education of English Language Learners. NCLB has increased awareness of the academic needs and achievement of ELLs as schools, districts, and states are held accountable for teaching English and content knowledge to ELLs. ELLs present a unique set of challenges to educators because of the central role played by academic language proficiency in the acquisition and assessment of...

  • Schools, achievement, and inequality: a seasonal perspective

    1/1/01 - Alexander, Karl L., Entwisle, Doris R., Olson, Linda S.

    Are there socioeconomic differences in the seasonality of children's learning over the school year and summer months? The achievement gap across social lines increases during the primary grades, as much research indicates, but descriptive analyses and HLM within-person growth models for a representative panel of Baltimore school children demonstrate that the increase can be traced mainly to the out-of-school environment (i.e., influences situated in home and community). School-year verbal...

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    The relationship between changes in the percentage of students passing and in the percentage testing advanced on state assessment tests in Kentucky and Virginia

    1/31/10 - Louis Jacobson, Laura Holian

    "Under the accountability provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, states are required to assess students in reading and math and to identify them as below proficient or as proficient or advanced (both considered passing). Because schools are held accountable only for ensuring that students test proficient or better, there have been concerns that a focus on increasing the percentage of students testing proficient might unintentionally lead to fewer students testing at the advanced...

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