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    Addressing Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students: Overrepresentation in Special Education: Guidelines for Parents

    1/24/09 - Alfredo Artiles, Beth Harry, Equity Alliance at ASU

    Do bias or inappropriate practice play a role in the placement of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education? Is the representation of low-income students in special education programs larger than their representation in the school population at your child’s school? If the answers to these questions are yes, it is possible your child’s school may be facing a problem that is called “overrepresentation” in its special education programs. This paper is one of...

  • Student Background and Student Achievement: What Is the Right Question?

    1/1/05 - Heyneman, Stephen P.

    For half a century there have been reports that children of the poor or of some ethnic minorities on average perform worse in school. Some have suggested that these findings demonstrate a failing of education to reduce gaps in adult income and differences in adult socioeconomic status. This article reviews the research internationally and concludes that the debate is outdated. School children in the United States make up only 2 percent of the world's school children. When considering this...

  • 21st Century Knowledge and Skills in Educator Preparation

    1/1/10 - Partnership for 21st Century Skills

    This is an exciting and challenging time for teacher educators. The nature of teaching is changing. In an effort to transform themselves into exemplary educator preparation institutions, many programs are becoming more entrepreneurial, recognizing new opportunities and making changes required to respond to the needs of 21st century learners. Many are successfully engaged in strategies such as: • Providing high-quality alternative routes to teaching, • Building on private and...

  • A road map for mathematics achievement for all students: findings from the national mathematics panel

    1/1/09 - Brown, C.,

    The eminence, safety, and well-being of nations have been entwined for centuries with the ability of their people to deal with sophisticated quantitative ideas. Leading societies have commanded mathematical skills that have brought them advantages in medicine and health, in technology and commerce, in navigation and exploration, in defense and finance, and in the ability to understand past failures and to forecast future developments. History is full of examples. During most of the 20th...

  • Academic achievement of homeless and highly mobile children in an urban school district: Longitudinal evidence on risk, growth, and resilience

    1/1/09 - Obradović, Jelena, Long, Jeffrey D., Cutuli, J. J., Chi-Keung, Chan, Hinz, Elizabeth, Heistad, David, Masten, Ann S.

    Longitudinal growth trajectories of reading and math achievement were studied in four primary school grade cohorts (GCs) of a large urban district to examine academic risk and resilience in homeless and highly mobile (H/HM) students. Initial achievement was assessed when student cohorts were in the second, third, fourth, and fifth grades, and again 12 and 18 months later. Achievement trajectories of H/HM students were compared to low-income but nonmobile students and all other tested...

  • Advocacy as a Critical Role for Urban School Counselors: Working Toward Equity and Social Justice

    1/1/05 - Bemak, Fred, Chung, Rita Chi-Ying

    The academic achievement gap of students of color and low-income students as compared to middle and upper socioeconomic students and White students has been clearly documented. Historically the long-standing role of the school counselor has contributed to the status quo of these inequities, inadvertently maintaining educational and social disparities. This has been reflected in school counselors' training, role or job descriptions, and actual practice. This article explores the need for a...

  • Basic Facts about Low-Income Children

    2/1/14 - Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 34 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 45 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Being a child in a low-income or poor family does not happen by chance. Parental education and employment, race/ethnicity, and other factors are associated with children’s experience of economic insecurity. This fact sheet describes the...

  • Black-White achievement gap and family wealth

    1/1/08 - Yeung, W. Jean, Conley, Dalton

    This article examines the extent to which family wealth affects the Black-White test score gap for young children based on data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (aged 3-12). This study found little evidence that wealth mediated the Black-White test scores gaps, which were eliminated when child and family demographic covariates were held constant. However, family wealth had a stronger association with cognitive achievement of school-aged children than that of preschoolers and a...

  • Black–White Achievement Gap and Family Wealth

    1/1/08 - Yeung, W. Jean, Conley, Dalton

    This article examines the extent to which family wealth affects the Black–White test score gap for young children based on data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (aged 3–12). This study found little evidence that wealth mediated the Black–White test scores gaps, which were eliminated when child and family demographic covariates were held constant. However, family wealth had a stronger association with cognitive achievement of school-aged children than that of preschoolers and a...

  • Childhood poverty, chronic stress, and adult working memory

    1/1/09 - Evans, Gary W., Schamberg, Michelle A.

    The income–achievement gap is a formidable societal problem, but little is known about either neurocognitive or biological mechanisms that might account for income-related deficits in academic achievement. We show that childhood poverty is inversely related to working memory in young adults. Furthermore, this prospective relationship is mediated by elevated chronic stress during childhood. Chronic stress is measured by allostatic load, a biological marker of cumulative wear and tear...

  • Closing the achievement gap: Lessons from Illinois' golden spike high-poverty high-performing schools

    1/1/04 - McGee, Glenn W.

    The achievement gap is the single most critical issue in American education. This study illustrates the difference in academic performance between low-income children and their peers, between minority children and their classmates, and between those schools that serve a majority of children from low-income families and those that serve a more advantaged population. Using a research framework, the author identifies and examines Golden Spike schools--Illinois schools that have a sustained...

  • Closing the Achievement Gap: Lessons From Illinois' Golden Spike High-Poverty High-Performing Schools

    1/1/04 - McGee, Glenn W.

    The achievement gap is the single most critical issue in American education. This study illustrates the difference in academic performance between low-income children and their peers, between minority children and their classmates, and between those schools that serve a majority of children from low-income families and those that serve a more advantaged population. Using a research framework, the author identifies and examines Golden Spike schools-Illinois schools that have a sustained...

  • Closing the Achievement Gap: The Association of Racial Climate with Achievement and Behavioral Outcomes

    1/1/07 - Mattison, Erica, Aber, Mark

    This study investigated the relationship between school racial climate and students’ self-reports of academic and discipline outcomes, including whether racial climate mediated and/or moderated the relationship between race and outcomes. Using the Racial Climate Survey-High School Version (M. Aber et al., unpublished), data were gathered from African American ( n = 382) and European American students ( n = 1456) regarding their perceptions of racial climate. About 18% of the respondents...

  • Closing the achievement gap: The association of racial climate with achievement and behavioral outcomes

    1/1/07 - Mattison, Erica, Aber, Mark S.

    This study investigated the relationship between school racial climate and students' self-reports of academic and discipline outcomes, including whether racial climate mediated and/or moderated the relationship between race and outcomes. Using the Racial Climate Survey-High School Version (M. Aber et al., unpublished), data were gathered from African American (n = 382) and European American students (n = 1456) regarding their perceptions of racial climate. About 18% of the respondents were...

  • Closing the Disparity Gap

    1/1/03 - Haycock, Ken

    The writer provides research data that indicate that middle- and high-income neighborhoods provide better access to children's reading materials than low-income neighborhoods.

  • Closing the Gap With Summer Reading

    1/1/09 - Metz, Steve

    The author emphasizes the value of summer reading programs to students. He claimed that summer learning or reading programs are an essential factor in student learning. He cited a research on the achievement gap between lower- and higher-income youth which can be attributed to access to summer learning programs. The author argued that summer reading should be an integral part of lifelong learning and personal growth.

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