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Tag: disparities

  • Gender Disparity in Science Education: The Causes, Consequences, and Solutions

    1/1/04 - Tindall, Tiffany, Hamil, Burnette

    Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments prohibits sex discrimination in schools. However, research conducted since this time has consistently revealed that gender discrimination in schools remains, especially in the areas of science and mathematics. Girls are not receiving the same quality, or even quantity, of education as their male classmates. Over the past 20 years, a large body of international scholarly literature has developed to address gender disparity in science and science...

  • Measuring Racial Disparities and Discrimination in Education

    1/1/03

    A special section on measuring racial disparities and discrimination in education is presented. Articles discuss the degree to which racial disparities in education are the result of racial discrimination; the formal legal definitions of race discrimination in education, how those definitions are applied in various contexts and cases, and the role that social science evidence has played and could play in the cases; racial discrepancies in education, with particular attention to those that...

  • Measuring Racial Disparities and Discrimination in Elementary and Secondary Education: An Introduction

    1/1/03 - Dabady, Marilyn

    Part of a special section on measuring racial disparities and discrimination in elementary and secondary education. A brief preview of the articles contained in the special section is provided. The articles were originally presented at the National Research Council Workshop on Measuring Racial Disparities and Discrimination in Elementary and Secondary Education, which was held in July 2002.

  • Neuroscience Perspectives on Disparities in School Readiness and Cognitive Achievement

    1/1/05 - Noble, Kimberly G., Tottenham, Nim, Casey, B. J.

    This article allows readers to look at racial and ethnic disparities in school readiness from a neuroscience perspective. Although researchers have traditionally measured gaps in school readiness using broad achievement tests, they can now assess readiness in terms of more specific brain-based cognitive functions. Three neurocognitive systems--cognitive control, learning and memory, and reading--are essential for success in school. Thanks to recent advances in brain imaging, it is now...

  • On "gap gazing" in mathematics education: The need for gaps analyses

    1/1/08 - Lubienski, Sarah Theule

    Analyses of disparities in students' mathematics experiences and outcomes are an essential part of efforts to promote equity. Scholars concerned about equity should not write off such analyses as mere "gap gazing." Research on gaps between underserved groups and their more advantaged peers are important for shaping public opinion and informing education policy. Analyses of gaps also inform mathematics education research and practice, illuminating which groups and curricular areas are most in...

  • On "Gap Gazing" in Mathematics Education: The Need for Gaps Analyses

    1/1/08 - Lubienski, Sarah Theule

    Analyses of disparities in students' mathematics experiences and outcomes are an essential part of efforts to promote equity. Scholars concerned about equity should not write off such analyses as mere "gap gazing." Research on gaps between underserved groups and their more advantaged peers are important for shaping public opinion and informing education policy. Analyses of gaps also inform mathematics education research and practice, illuminating which groups and curricular areas are most in...

  • Parent educational investment and children’s general knowledge development

    1/1/09 - Cheadle, Jacob E.

    Drawing on longitudinal data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999, this study used IRT modeling to operationalize a parental educational investment measure based upon Lareau’s notion of ‘concerted cultivation.’ The analysis used multilevel piecewise growth models regressing children’s general knowledge achievement from kindergarten through the first grade on a measure of concerted cultivation and indicators of the...

  • Race, cultural capital and educational resources: Persistent inequalities and achievement returns

    1/1/99 - Roscigno, Vincent J., Ainsworth-Darnell, James W.

    Examined the extent to which Black and White students differ in cultural capital and household educational resources, the mediating role these attributes may play between family background and racial disparities in academic achievement, and whether educational returns vary by racial group. Data were obtained from the National Education Longitudinal Survey (1990) of 16,189 10th graders (83.6% White, 16.4% Black). The findings of a statistical analysis show that significant racial variations...

  • Race-Blind Policies Ignore Ethnicity and Mask Education Disparities

    3/11/14 - Tran, Jonathan

    For nearly two decades, Proposition 209 has prevented educational, employment, and other public institutions in California from considering race as a factor in admissions and hiring - a misguided and flawed policy that has masked and proliferated significant disparities in these arenas.

  • Racial Disparities and Discrimination in Education: What Do We know, How Do We Know It, and What Do We Need to Know?

    1/1/03 - Farkas, George

    This paper reviews what we have learned about racial discrepancies in education, with particular attention to those that might be attributable to discrimination. Empirical studies have found that, on average, African American, Latino, and American Indian children arrive at kindergarten or first grade with lower levels of oral language, prereading, and premathematics skills, as well as lesser general knowledge, than that possessed by White and Asian American children. African American...

  • Racial Disparities and Discrimination in Education: What Do We Know, How Do We Know It, and What Do We Need to Know?

    1/1/03 - Farkas, George

    This paper reviews what we have learned about racial discrepancies in education, with particular attention to those that might be attributable to discrimination. Empirical studies have found that, on average, African American, Latino, and American Indian children arrive at kindergarten or first grade with lower levels of oral language, prereading, and premathematics skills, as well as lesser general knowledge, than that possessed by White and Asian American children. African American...

  • RACIAL PROMOTION THROUGH RACIAL EXCLUSION

    1/1/00 - Crawford, Curtis

    The article presents information on a report which says that racial disparities in academic achievement are unacceptable in the United States. Racial disparities should be eliminated with all possible speed. The language of the report is emphatic and insistent. Eliminating the large educational achievement gaps among the nation's racial and ethnic groups is the most important educational challenge. In order to increase minority participation, race-based affirmative action has often been...

  • Schools, achievement, and inequality: a seasonal perspective

    1/1/01 - Alexander, Karl L., Entwisle, Doris R., Olson, Linda S.

    Are there socioeconomic differences in the seasonality of children's learning over the school year and summer months? The achievement gap across social lines increases during the primary grades, as much research indicates, but descriptive analyses and HLM within-person growth models for a representative panel of Baltimore school children demonstrate that the increase can be traced mainly to the out-of-school environment (i.e., influences situated in home and community). School-year verbal...

  • Social Class is Dead. Long Live Social Class! Stereotype Threat among Low Socioeconomic Status Individuals

    1/1/07 - Spencer, Bettina, Castano, Emanuele

    Stereotype threat effects occur when members of a stigmatized group perform poorly on a task because they fear confirming a negative stereotype that is associated with their ingroup. The present study investigates whether the observed achievement gap in standardized testing between high- and low-socioeconomic status (SES) American students can be due, in part, to this phenomenon. Participants were placed in one of four conditions that varied in level of “threat” related to socioeconomic...

  • Stemming Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Rising Tide of Obesity

    1/1/03 - Hawks, Steven R., Madanat, Hala N.

    A comprehensive population model for eliminating racial and ethnic disparities in obesity is presented. The model calls for a balance between downstream interventions, which emphasize the individual; midstream interventions, which have a community orientation; and upstream interventions, which address health problems at the broadest population level. These interventions should have well-defined objectives, clear theoretical foundations, and culturally appropriate methodologies. It is...

  • Student Achievement in High Performing, Suburban Middle Schools and Low Performing, Urban Middle Schools: Plausible Explanations for the Differences

    1/1/04 - Brown, Kathleen M., Anfara, Vincent A., Jr., Roney, Kathleen

    A study examined explanations for differences in student achievement between high-performing suburban and low-performing urban middle schools. Data were obtained from 12 teachers in six high-performing and 12 teachers in six low-performing public middle schools in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Apart from a great disparity in socioeconomic status, funding, and test scores, findings revealed sharp contrasts between the two types of schools in relation to the managerial, technical, and...

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