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  • Reducing the Gap: Success for All and the Achievement of African American Students

    1/1/06 - Slavin, Robert E., Madden, Nancy A.

    Success for All is a comprehensive reform model that uses cooperative learning, tutoring, family support services, and extensive professional development to help high-poverty schools succeed with their students. This article reviews research on Success for All with African American students, focusing on evidence that Success for All reduces the achievement gap between African American and White students. More than 40 studies, including a national randomized experiment, have found positive...

  • Reducing the Racial Achievement Gap: A Social-Psychological Intervention

    1/1/06 - Cohen, Geoffrey L., Garcia, Julio, Apfel, Nancy, Master, Allison

    Two randomized field experiments tested a social-psychological intervention designed to improve minority student performance and increase our understanding of how psychological threat mediates performance in chronically evaluative real-world environments. We expected that the risk of confirming a negative stereotype aimed at one's group could undermine academic performance in minority students by elevating their level of psychological threat. We tested whether such psychological threat could...

  • School racial composition and academic achievement: the case of Hmong LEP students in the USA

    1/1/08 - Lee, Moosung, Madyun, Na'im

    The existence of the achievement gap is more than just a black-white issue; contrary to stereotypes, it is a concern within Asian homes. Hmong students underachieve in comparison with many East Asian students. Traditional cultural practices and poverty have been identified as explanatory factors. Our data suggest that a more critical factor might be within-school segregation. Utilising a racial exposure statistic, it was found that the more diverse a school became, the higher the achievement...

  • Secondary Education Systemic Issues: Addressing Possible Contributors to a Leak in the Science Education Pipeline and Potential Solutions

    1/1/05 - Young, Hollie

    To maintain the legacy of cutting edge scientific innovation in the United States our country must address the many pressing issues facing science education today. One of the most important issues relating to science education is the under-representation of African Americans and Hispanics in the science, technology, and engineering workforce. Foreshadowing such under-representation in the workforce are the disproportionately low rates of African American and Hispanic students attaining...

  • Self-regulation and the income-achievement gap

    1/1/08 - Evans, Gary W., Rosenbaum, Jennifer

    Abstract: The pervasive income-related achievement gap among children has been partially explained by parental investments. Wealthier parents provide more cognitively enriched environments (e.g., books, informal learning opportunities such as music lessons) and converse more with their children relative to low-income parents. However parental investment only partially accounts for the income-achievement gap. On average, low-income children have more difficulty regulating their emotions and...

  • Separate But Not Yet Equal: The Relation Between School Finance Adequacy Litigation and African American Student Achievement

    1/1/06 - Glen, William J.

    The Black-White achievement gap presents perhaps the most important issue in education. Legal actions play a role in the efforts to reduce and eliminate the gap. School finance adequacy litigation offers the most widely used legal strategy to seek fairer outcomes for children. However, the literature is sparse with regard to the impact such litigation has on student outcomes. This article addresses the extent to which adequacy litigation functions as a means of narrowing the achievement gap...

  • So Many Children Left Behind

    1/1/07 - Stiefel, Leanna, Schwartz, Amy Ellen, Chellman, Colin C.

    Although the No Child Left Behind Act was intended to help "all students meet high academic standards," it is focused on subgroups of low-achieving students. The authors analyze the possible impact of the legislation's requirement for performance reporting by racial subgroup in light of the considerable racial segregation in U.S. schools. In particular, using data on elementary and middle schools in New York State. the authors show that the schools are so highly segregated that more than...

  • Social Class is Dead. Long Live Social Class! Stereotype Threat among Low Socioeconomic Status Individuals

    1/1/07 - Spencer, Bettina, Castano, Emanuele

    Stereotype threat effects occur when members of a stigmatized group perform poorly on a task because they fear confirming a negative stereotype that is associated with their ingroup. The present study investigates whether the observed achievement gap in standardized testing between high- and low-socioeconomic status (SES) American students can be due, in part, to this phenomenon. Participants were placed in one of four conditions that varied in level of “threat” related to socioeconomic...

  • Still Separate and Unequal: Examining Race, Opportunity, and School Achievement in "Integrated" Suburbs

    1/1/06 - Diamond, John B.

    Recent research examines the Black/White achievement gap in integrated, affluent suburban schools. This gap is particularly vexing more than 50 years after the Brown v. Board of Education (1954) decision emphasized creating educational equity through school desegregation. Drawing on a case study of one suburban school district, this article details the structural, institutional, and symbolic inequalities that characterize such settings and contribute to educational inequality. The case...

  • STRUCTURAL INEQUITIES AND THE ACHIEVEMENT GAP IN URBAN SCHOOLS

    1/1/04 - Talbert-Johnson, Carolyn

    If teachers represent a child's most important asset, they also can be a child's greatest liability, especially in states where a shortage of well-qualified teachers impedes the academic progress of African American students in learning contexts. The author asserts that a transformation in practices must occur in teacher education programs if these programs are to become places where preservice candidates learn to adopt pedagogies that are instrumental in the academic achievement of African...

  • Student Success Skills: A Promising Program to Close the Academic Achievement Gap for African American and Latino Students

    1/1/07 - Miranda, Alexis, Webb, Linda, Brigman, Greg, Peluso, Paul

    Academic achievement data from four previous Student Success Skills (SSS) studies were aggregated and examined to determine if there were differential effects in improved test scores among White, Latino, and African American students. Results showed that posttest scores for the treatment group were significantly higher than the comparison group in math as well as reading. There were no interactions or main effects for ethnicity. White, Latino, and African American students showed similar...

  • Tackling Male Underachievement: Enhancing a Strengths-Based Learning Environment for Middle School Boys

    1/1/08 - Clark, Mary Ann, Flower, Kelly, Walton, Jonathan, Oakley, Erin

    During the past decade, there has been an increasing gender achievement gap with male students lagging behind their female counterparts on a number of important indicators of school success. This article examines recommendations and strategies for school counselors working with middle school boys to enhance the learning environment, to promote strengths, and to encourage positive attitudes toward academic achievement and future planning. Collaboration with teachers, administrators, parents...

  • Teacher expectations, classroom context, and the achievement gap

    1/1/08 - McKown, Clark, Weinstein, Rhona S.

    Abstract: In two independent datasets with 1872 elementary-aged children in 83 classrooms, Studies 1 and 2 examined the role of classroom context in moderating the relationship between child ethnicity and teacher expectations. For Study 1 overall and Study 2 mixed-grade classrooms, in ethnically diverse classrooms where students reported high levels of differential teacher treatment (PDT) towards high and low achieving students, teacher expectations of European American and Asian American...

  • The achievement gap between science classrooms and historic inequalities

    1/1/08 - Howie, Sarah, Scherman, Vanessa

    Abstract: In the past politics deprived many African children (in particular) in South Africa the opportunity of achieving quality education. This was most especially true in subjects such as mathematics and science. In this research the science teacher-level data from Third International Mathematics and Science Study 1999 (TIMSS’99) were analysed with a view to evaluating the politicized gap between what are viewed as well-functioning and provisioned classrooms (predominantly housing...

  • The Black-White-Other Achievement Gap: Testing Theories of Academic Performance Among Multiracial and Monoracial Adolescents

    1/1/09 - Herman, Melissa R.

    The study presented here tested three theories of racial differences in academic performance among monoracial and multiracial high school students. These theories (status attainment, oppositional culture, and educational attitudes) were developed to explain differences in achievement among monoracial groups, but the study tested how the theories apply to a multiracial sample. The results show that ethnic identity and experiences of ethnic discrimination are not strong factors in explaining...

  • The black–white test score gap and early home environment

    1/1/09 - Yeung, Wei-Jun Jean, Pfeiffer, Kathryn M.

    Based on panel data for three age cohorts of children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we examine how early home environment contributes to black¿white achievement gaps at different developmental stages and the extent to which early gaps contribute to later racial achievement gaps. We find large black¿white test score differences among children of all ages even before children start formal schooling. Except for the oldest cohort, the gaps for all tests widened when children¿s...

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