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  • Immigration, Language, and Education: How Does Language Policy Structure Opportunity?

    1/1/09 - GÁNdara, Patricia, Rumberger, Russell W.

    Background/Context: According to U.S. Census figures, 11 million elementary and secondary students of immigrant families were enrolled in the public schools in October 2005, representing 20% of all students, and this figure is expected to grow in the coming years. Most of these students enter school as English learners (ELs), and most ELs have exceptionally low performance on measures of academic achievement and attainment. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: This article...

  • INCREASING PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AMONG ADOLESCENT AFRICAN AMERICAN MALES

    1/1/07 - Martin, Don, Martin, Magy, Gibson, Suzanne Semivan, Wilkins, Jonathan

    African American adolescents disproportionately perform poorly compared to peers in both behavioral and academic aspects of their educational experience. In this study, African American male students participated in an after-school program involving tutoring, group counseling, and various enrichment activities. All students were assessed regarding their behavioral changes using attendance, discipline referrals, suspensions, and expulsions reports. The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT...

  • Intractable Self-Fulfilling Prophecies: Fifty Years After Brown v. Board of Education

    1/1/04 - Weinstein, Rhona S., Gregory, Anne, Strambler, Michael J.

    The civil rights struggle for equal educational opportunity has yet to be achieved at the start of the 21st century. Inequality persists but problem and remedy are reframed-- from integrating schools, to ensuring equal access in resegregated settings, to closing the petformance. gap. As seen through ecological theory (K S. Weinstein, 2002b), complex, multilayered, and interactive negative self-fulfilling prophecies create or perpetuate educational inequities and unequal outcomes. Society has...

  • Lasting Consequences of the Summer Learning Gap

    1/1/07 - Alexander, Karl L., Entwisle, Doris R., Olson, Linda Steffel

    Prior research has demonstrated that summer learning rooted in family and community influences widens the achievement gap across social lines, while schooling offsets those family and community influences. In this article, we examine the long-term educational consequences of summer learning differences by family socioeconomic level. Using data from the Baltimore Beginning School Study youth panel, we decompose achievement scores at the start of high school into their developmental...

  • Legal and educational perspectives of equity in assessment

    1/1/08 - Cumming, J. Joy

    Equity in assessment concerns all educational authorities and practitioners. While educators commonly consider issues of equity in terms of accommodations for students with special needs, or addressing cultural difference, equity issues in educational assessment have emerged outside these bases. This paper examines equity assessment issues, drawing predominantly on case history from the United States of America (US) with examples from Australia and England, to demonstrate areas that may draw...

  • More Than One Gap: Dropout Rate Gaps Between and Among Black, Hispanic, and White Students

    1/1/07 - Carpenter Ii, Dick M., Ramirez, Al

    The achievement gap, traditionally measured by test scores, also can be documented by dropout behavior. Examining dropout behavior among Black, White, and Hispanic students, with a particular focus on gaps within groups and not just between Whites and minorities, shows a clearer picture of the achievement gap. The results of our study show multiple achievement gaps both between and within groups, ultimately concluding that within-group gaps were often more significant than gaps between...

  • Neighborhood and School Factors in the School Performance of Immigrants’ Children

    1/1/07 - Pong, Suet-ling, Hao, Lingxin

    This article examines the effects of neighborhoods and schools on the achievement gaps between adolescents of different nativities and ethnicities. We show that neighborhood and school conditions are better for natives' than for immigrants' children, and they are the worst for Hispanic immigrants. Using cross-classified hierarchical models, we find that introducing neighborhood and school characteristics helps to account for the disadvantage of Mexican immigrants' children but to reveal the...

  • Opportunity to Learn and English Learner Achievement: Is Increased Content Exposure Beneficial?

    1/1/08 - Aguirre-Munoz, Zenaida, Boscardin, Christy Kim

    This investigation examined the impact of opportunity to learn content and skills targeted by a writing assessment on the achievement of English learners (ELs), including the potential for differential impact of increased exposure to literary analysis and writing instruction. Results revealed several factors contributing to students' writing performance. Student-level and teacher-level variables were found to significantly contribute to writing performance. Although exposure to writing and...

  • PART III: CREATING MULTICULTURAL CLASSROOMS: Under-Prepared Students: Essentials beyond Academics

    1/1/07 - Ford, Theron N., Glimps, Blanche, Giallourakis, Angie

    Teacher education programs continue to struggle with preparing highly qualified teachers ready to meet the academic, cultural, exceptionality and linguistic challenges, which are increasingly the reality of American's classrooms. Despite increased academic rigor in such programs, many emerging teachers are still ill prepared to each effectively students from cultural and racial backgrounds different from their own. The article asserts that this is due in part to a lack of an appropriate...

  • Poverty and educational achievement: why do children from low-income families tend to do less well at school?

    1/1/07 - West, Anne

    There is an achievement gap between children from poor family backgrounds and others; this is not unique to the UK, but found in all other countries of the OECD. This article examines the reasons why children from poorer backgrounds do not, on average, do as well academically at school as those from more advantaged backgrounds. It argues that the family, income and material resources are highly significant, although schools also play an important role. Possible implications for policy are...

  • Powerful Pedagogy: Learning Communities at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    1/1/08 - Shapiro, Nancy S.

    A recent deluge of national studies and reports warns the United States that our future hangs in the balance because our educational system is failing our society. These studies cite projections that American competitiveness is at risk because we have failed to address a growing demographic inevitability—that the segment of the population that is growing the fastest is comprised of those students who are most at risk in our educational system. An expanding body of research (including the...

  • Preschool Antecedents of Mathematics Achievement of Latinos: The Influence of Family Resources, Early Literacy Experiences, and Preschool Attendance

    1/1/07 - Lopez, Edward M., Gallimore, Ronald, Garnier, Helen

    Seventy-three Latino middle school students participated in a longitudinal study of the preschool antecedents of their mathematics achievement. Path analysis indicated that family resources (parents' educational level, occupation, and income) predicted home literacy activities, which predicted combined early Spanish literacy and English language proficiencies at kindergarten entry, which predicted elementary mathematics achievement, which in turn predicted middle school mathematics...

  • Pushing Past the Achievement Gap: An Essay on the Language of Deficit

    1/1/07 - Ladson-Billings, Gloria

    Despite the intense focus on the achievement gap that exists between African American, Latino, and other students of color and their White counterparts, the achievement gap discourse keeps us locked in the deficit paradigm. This article challenges us to look at the inherent fallacies of the achievement gap discourse and place students' academic struggles in the larger context of social failure including health, wealth, and funding gaps that impede their school success. [ABSTRACT FROM...

  • Race, inequality and educational accountability: the irony of 'No Child Left Behind'

    1/1/07 - Darling-Hammond, Linda

    The No Child Left Behind Act, the major education initiative of the Bush Administration, was intended to raise educational achievement and close the racial/ethnic achievement gap. Its strategies include focusing schools' attention on raising test scores, mandating better qualified teachers and providing educational choice. Unfortunately, the complex requirements of the law have failed to achieve these goals, and have provoked a number of unintended negative consequences which frequently harm...

  • Race, School Achievement, and Educational Inequality: Toward a Student-Based Inquiry Perspective

    1/1/07 - Wiggan, Greg

    Over the past four decades, there have been numerous discussions on student achievement and school failure. Within this time, the debate over the causes and consequences of racial differences in achievement has been at the heart of the nation's social and political life. The author discusses the major developments in achievement research over the past century and examines the foremost explanations given for racial differences in school performance, namely, genetic deficiency, social class...

  • Recursive Processes in Self-Affirmation: Intervening to Close the Minority Achievement Gap

    1/1/09 - Cohen, Geoffrey L., Garcia, Julio, Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie, Apfel, Nancy, Brzustoski, Patricia

    A 2-year follow-up of a randomized field experiment previously reported in Science is presented. A subtle intervention to lessen minority students' psychological threat related to being negatively stereotyped in school was tested in an experiment conducted three times with three independent cohorts (N = 133, 149, and 134). The intervention, a series of brief but structured writing assignments focusing students on a self-affirming value, reduced the racial achievement gap. Over 2 years, the...

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