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  • Identity, Belonging, and Achievement: A Model, Interventions, Implications

    1/1/08 - Cohen, Geoffrey L., Garcia, Julio

    In this article we discuss how social or group identities affect achievement. We also present a model of identity engagement that describes how a salient social identity can trigger psychological threat and belonging concerns and how these can produce persistent performance decrements, which through feedback loops can increase over time. The character of such processes may be revealed only over time because they are recursive in nature and interact with other factors in chronically...

  • Immigration from Mexico into the Math/Science Pipeline in American Education

    1/1/04 - Crosnoe, Robert, Lopez-Gonzalez, Lorena, Muller, Chandra

    The purpose of this study was to explore generational differences in math/science enrollment and achievement among Mexican-American students and the role of family and school contexts in these differences.We applied survey regression techniques to data from 12,020 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.Native-born Mexican-American students had lower math/science enrollment than their peers, especially after differences in family and school contexts were taken...

  • Immigration, Language, and Education: How Does Language Policy Structure Opportunity?

    1/1/09 - GÁNdara, Patricia, Rumberger, Russell W.

    Background/Context: According to U.S. Census figures, 11 million elementary and secondary students of immigrant families were enrolled in the public schools in October 2005, representing 20% of all students, and this figure is expected to grow in the coming years. Most of these students enter school as English learners (ELs), and most ELs have exceptionally low performance on measures of academic achievement and attainment. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: This article...

  • INCREASING PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AMONG ADOLESCENT AFRICAN AMERICAN MALES

    1/1/07 - Martin, Don, Martin, Magy, Gibson, Suzanne Semivan, Wilkins, Jonathan

    African American adolescents disproportionately perform poorly compared to peers in both behavioral and academic aspects of their educational experience. In this study, African American male students participated in an after-school program involving tutoring, group counseling, and various enrichment activities. All students were assessed regarding their behavioral changes using attendance, discipline referrals, suspensions, and expulsions reports. The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT...

  • Intractable Self-Fulfilling Prophecies: Fifty Years After Brown v. Board of Education

    1/1/04 - Weinstein, Rhona S., Gregory, Anne, Strambler, Michael J.

    The civil rights struggle for equal educational opportunity has yet to be achieved at the start of the 21st century. Inequality persists but problem and remedy are reframed-- from integrating schools, to ensuring equal access in resegregated settings, to closing the petformance. gap. As seen through ecological theory (K S. Weinstein, 2002b), complex, multilayered, and interactive negative self-fulfilling prophecies create or perpetuate educational inequities and unequal outcomes. Society has...

  • Lasting Consequences of the Summer Learning Gap

    1/1/07 - Alexander, Karl L., Entwisle, Doris R., Olson, Linda Steffel

    Prior research has demonstrated that summer learning rooted in family and community influences widens the achievement gap across social lines, while schooling offsets those family and community influences. In this article, we examine the long-term educational consequences of summer learning differences by family socioeconomic level. Using data from the Baltimore Beginning School Study youth panel, we decompose achievement scores at the start of high school into their developmental...

  • Legal and educational perspectives of equity in assessment

    1/1/08 - Cumming, J. Joy

    Equity in assessment concerns all educational authorities and practitioners. While educators commonly consider issues of equity in terms of accommodations for students with special needs, or addressing cultural difference, equity issues in educational assessment have emerged outside these bases. This paper examines equity assessment issues, drawing predominantly on case history from the United States of America (US) with examples from Australia and England, to demonstrate areas that may draw...

  • More Than One Gap: Dropout Rate Gaps Between and Among Black, Hispanic, and White Students

    1/1/07 - Carpenter Ii, Dick M., Ramirez, Al

    The achievement gap, traditionally measured by test scores, also can be documented by dropout behavior. Examining dropout behavior among Black, White, and Hispanic students, with a particular focus on gaps within groups and not just between Whites and minorities, shows a clearer picture of the achievement gap. The results of our study show multiple achievement gaps both between and within groups, ultimately concluding that within-group gaps were often more significant than gaps between...

  • Neighborhood and School Factors in the School Performance of Immigrants’ Children

    1/1/07 - Pong, Suet-ling, Hao, Lingxin

    This article examines the effects of neighborhoods and schools on the achievement gaps between adolescents of different nativities and ethnicities. We show that neighborhood and school conditions are better for natives' than for immigrants' children, and they are the worst for Hispanic immigrants. Using cross-classified hierarchical models, we find that introducing neighborhood and school characteristics helps to account for the disadvantage of Mexican immigrants' children but to reveal the...

  • Opportunity to Learn and English Learner Achievement: Is Increased Content Exposure Beneficial?

    1/1/08 - Aguirre-Munoz, Zenaida, Boscardin, Christy Kim

    This investigation examined the impact of opportunity to learn content and skills targeted by a writing assessment on the achievement of English learners (ELs), including the potential for differential impact of increased exposure to literary analysis and writing instruction. Results revealed several factors contributing to students' writing performance. Student-level and teacher-level variables were found to significantly contribute to writing performance. Although exposure to writing and...

  • P21 Framework Definitions

    1/1/09

    To help practitioners integrate skills into the teaching of core academic subjects, the Partnership has developed a unified, collective vision for learning known as the Framework for 21st Century Learning. This Framework describes the skills, knowledge and expertise students must master to succeed in work and life; it is a blend of content knowledge, specific skills, expertise and literacies.

  • Parent educational investment and children’s general knowledge development

    1/1/09 - Cheadle, Jacob E.

    Drawing on longitudinal data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999, this study used IRT modeling to operationalize a parental educational investment measure based upon Lareau’s notion of ‘concerted cultivation.’ The analysis used multilevel piecewise growth models regressing children’s general knowledge achievement from kindergarten through the first grade on a measure of concerted cultivation and indicators of the...

  • PART III: CREATING MULTICULTURAL CLASSROOMS: Under-Prepared Students: Essentials beyond Academics

    1/1/07 - Ford, Theron N., Glimps, Blanche, Giallourakis, Angie

    Teacher education programs continue to struggle with preparing highly qualified teachers ready to meet the academic, cultural, exceptionality and linguistic challenges, which are increasingly the reality of American's classrooms. Despite increased academic rigor in such programs, many emerging teachers are still ill prepared to each effectively students from cultural and racial backgrounds different from their own. The article asserts that this is due in part to a lack of an appropriate...

  • Perceptions of "Acting Black" Among African American Teens: Implications of Racial Dramaturgy for Academic and Social Achievement

    1/1/04 - Peterson-Lewis, Sonja, Bratton, Lisa M.

    Content analysis of 56 African American high school students' descriptions of the meaning of "acting Black" revealed five underlying content dimensions: (1) academic/scholastic, (2) aesthetic/stylistic, (3) behavioral, (4) dispositional, and (5) impressionistic. With the exception of the qualities in the aesthetic/stylistic category, the respondents attributed primarily negative qualities to "acting Black." Although Black youths' perspectives on "acting White" has been a topic of great...

  • Poverty and educational achievement: why do children from low-income families tend to do less well at school?

    1/1/07 - West, Anne

    There is an achievement gap between children from poor family backgrounds and others; this is not unique to the UK, but found in all other countries of the OECD. This article examines the reasons why children from poorer backgrounds do not, on average, do as well academically at school as those from more advantaged backgrounds. It argues that the family, income and material resources are highly significant, although schools also play an important role. Possible implications for policy are...

  • Powerful Pedagogy: Learning Communities at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    1/1/08 - Shapiro, Nancy S.

    A recent deluge of national studies and reports warns the United States that our future hangs in the balance because our educational system is failing our society. These studies cite projections that American competitiveness is at risk because we have failed to address a growing demographic inevitability—that the segment of the population that is growing the fastest is comprised of those students who are most at risk in our educational system. An expanding body of research (including the...

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