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Tag: cognitive

  • Relating test-taking attitudes and skills and stereotype threat effects to the racial gap in cognitive ability test performance

    1/1/03 - Nguyen, Hannah-Hanh D., O'Neal, Alisha, Ryan, Ann Marie

    This research extended past studies on race effects and stereotype threat (ST) effects outside the academic domain, as well as exploring the mediating role of test-related cognition, motivation, and emotionality in the Black-White cognitive ability test performance differences. One hundred seventy-two undergraduates took a simulated personnel selection test and responded to measures of attitudinal and test-taking skills prior to and after the test. Half of the participants were told that the...

  • Self-regulation and the income-achievement gap

    1/1/08 - Evans, Gary W., Rosenbaum, Jennifer

    Abstract: The pervasive income-related achievement gap among children has been partially explained by parental investments. Wealthier parents provide more cognitively enriched environments (e.g., books, informal learning opportunities such as music lessons) and converse more with their children relative to low-income parents. However parental investment only partially accounts for the income-achievement gap. On average, low-income children have more difficulty regulating their emotions and...

  • Testing conditions influence the race gap in cognition and achievement estimated by household survey data

    1/1/03 - Kim, Hyoshin, Baydar, Nazli, Greek, April

    The present study investigates the hypothesis that the race gap estimated using achievement test scores administered during household surveys may partly be accounted for by measurable testing conditions such as interviewer characteristics, interviewer-child interactions, and the testing environment in the home. Using the child assessments of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) in 1992, the findings clearly indicate that the factors related to testing conditions in the home have...

  • The Role of Cognition, Motivation, and Emotion in Explaining the Mathematics Achievement Gap Between Hispanic and White Students

    1/1/06 - Stevens, Tara, Olivárez, Arturo, Jr., Hamman, Doug

    The authors investigated the relationships between cognitive, motivational, and emotional variables across Hispanic and White students to predict mathematics performance. A theoretically based structural model fit a total sample of 666 4th- to 10th-grade students well, supporting that self-efficacy, sources of self-efficacy, and emotional feedback were all stronger predictors of mathematics performance than general mental ability. Tests of the structural model across ethnicity suggested a...

  • The Role of Cognition, Motivation, and Emotion in Explaining the Mathematics Achievement Gap Between Hispanic and White Students

    1/1/06 - Stevens, Tara, Olivárez Jr, Arturo, Hamman, Doug

    The authors investigated the relationships between cognitive, motivational, and emotional variables across Hispanic and White students to predict mathematics performance. A theoretically based structural model fit a total sample of 666 4th- to 10th-grade students well, supporting that self-efficacy, sources of self-efficacy, and emotional feedback were all stronger predictors of mathematics performance than general mental ability. Tests of the structural model across ethnicity suggested a...

  • A Reading Program to Narrow the Achievement Gap

    1/1/08 - Erickson, Elizabeth

    Due to the No Child Left Behind legislation (PL 107-110, reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act), schools are looking for reading programs that will push students into reading proficiency on standardized tests. Programs tend to be expensive, require specific training, and often require buying that company's materials. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

  • Academic achievement of low birthweight children at age 11: The role of cognitive abilities at school entry

    1/1/01 - Breslau, N., Johnson, E. O., Lucia, V. C.

    Examined the extent to which deficits in academic achievement in low birthweight (LBW) children at age 11 are explained by deficits in cognitive abilities at school entry. Data come from a longitudinal study of a stratified sample of LBW and normal birthweight (NBW) children from an innercity and middle class suburbs in the Detroit area. Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery--Revised was used to measure reading and math at age 11. WISC-R and specific neuropsychologic tests were...

  • According to Jim: The Disproportions of Abilities

    1/1/09 - Gallagher, James J.

    The article discusses the factors involved on the issue about disproportion which refers to the absence of minority students in the classroom of gifted students in the U.S. One main factor is an assumption of equality in ability between ethnic and racial groups at birth with no superior races involved. The author explains that the country's educational system is facing real differences in the development of intellectual abilities of students by school age which is a morally and socially...

  • Black-White achievement gap and family wealth

    1/1/08 - Yeung, W. Jean, Conley, Dalton

    This article examines the extent to which family wealth affects the Black-White test score gap for young children based on data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (aged 3-12). This study found little evidence that wealth mediated the Black-White test scores gaps, which were eliminated when child and family demographic covariates were held constant. However, family wealth had a stronger association with cognitive achievement of school-aged children than that of preschoolers and a...

  • Black–White Achievement Gap and Family Wealth

    1/1/08 - Yeung, W. Jean, Conley, Dalton

    This article examines the extent to which family wealth affects the Black–White test score gap for young children based on data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (aged 3–12). This study found little evidence that wealth mediated the Black–White test scores gaps, which were eliminated when child and family demographic covariates were held constant. However, family wealth had a stronger association with cognitive achievement of school-aged children than that of preschoolers and a...

  • Brain-behavior relationships in reading acquisition are modulated by socioeconomic factors

    1/1/06 - Noble, Kimberly G., Wolmetz, Michael E., Ochs, Lisa G., Farah, Martha J., McCandliss, Bruce D.

    Functional neuroimaging may provide insights into the achievement gap in reading skill commonly observed across socioeconomic status (SES). Brain activation during reading tasks is known to be associated with individual differences in children's phonological language skills. By selecting children of equivalent phonological skill, yet diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate that a child's experience, as operationalized by SES, can...

  • Chapter : Cognitive and knowledge development Psychology of learning and instruction.

    1/1/94 - Driscoll, M.
  • Children's mathematics: Cognitively guided instructions

    1/1/99 - Thomas P. Carpenter; Elizabeth Fennema; Megan Loef Franke; Linda Levi;Susan B. Empson
  • Children's mathematics: Cognitively guided instructions

  • Closing the Achievement Gap: Examining the Role of Cognitive Developmental Level in Academic Achievement

    1/1/06 - Cooper, Jennifer A., Schleser, Robert

    The achievement gap in mathematics between African American and Caucasian students has been observed for several decades, though previous research has been unable to fully explain why the gap exists. Using a sample of 56 kindergarten and first grade students, this study examined the role that cognitive developmental level plays in the achievement gap. Results indicated that African American students scored significantly lower than the Caucasian students on a test of mathematical achievement...

  • Closing the Achievement Gap: Examining the Role of Cognitive Developmental Level in Academic Achievement

    1/1/06 - Cooper, Jennifer A., Schleser, Robert

    The achievement gap in mathematics between African American and Caucasian students has been observed for several decades, though previous research has been unable to fully explain why the gap exists. Using a sample of 56 kindergarten and first grade students, this study examined the role that cognitive developmental level plays in the achievement gap. Results indicated that African American students scored significantly lower than the Caucasian students on a test of mathematical achievement...

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