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Tag: background

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    ED Facts: Special education in the new National Education Data System

    1/5/09 - Ahearn, E.

    "This document begins with a background on ED’s development and implementation of a single repository for K-12 education data. It also includes a summary of interviews held with seven state special education directors and/or their IDEA data managers along with each state’s EDFacts coordinator to obtain information on the states’ submission of special education data via EDFacts. It closes with a section on observations and conclusions. This document was prepared by Project Forum at the...

  • Educational investment, family context, and children's math and reading growth from kindergarten through the third grade

    1/1/08 - Cheadle, Jacob E.

    Drawing on longitudinal data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999, this study used IRT modeling to operationalize a measure of parental educational investments based on Lareau's notion of concerted cultivation. It used multilevel piecewise growth models regressing children's math and reading achievement from entry into kindergarten through the third grade on concerted cultivation and family context variables. The results indicate that educational...

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    Effective and promising summer learning programs and approaches for economically-disadvantaged children and youth

    1/30/09 - Mary Terzian, Kristin Anderson Moore, Kathleen Hamilton

    "Children and youth who reside in economically disadvantaged households and who live in lowresource, urban neighborhoods are more likely to lose ground in math and reading over the summer than their middle- and upper-class peers. These children and youth often come from ethnic minority backgrounds. This achievement gap widens as children grow older, creating social and academic inequities. Summer learning programs are an important strategy for narrowing the achievement gap."

  • Equal Access to Content Instruction for English Learners: An Example from Science

    1/1/12 - Brown, Z.A. & DiRanna, K.

    Equal access to content instruction is the foundation of educational equity—it reduces opportunity gaps that lead to achievement gaps. Achievement gaps lead to gaps in college and career access, which lead to income gaps. Income gaps lead to language gaps, thus perpetuating one of the most critical gaps we face in education. This paper is about the importance of equal meaningful access to content instruction for English learners and how academic-language instruction through content...

  • Equity and literacy in the next millennium

    1/1/00 - Au, Kathryn H., Raphael, Taffy E.

    Considerable evidence documents the existence of a gap between the literacy achievement of students of diverse backgrounds and their mainstream peers. Given the increasing diversity of the population of students in classrooms in the US and around the world, the authors believe that the task of addressing the literacy achievement gap will become even more urgent in the new millennium.The challenges posed by the gap are considered in terms of 3 key groups of participants in the process of...

  • Evaluation of Quality Teaching for English Learners (QTEL) Professional Development

    1/1/12 - Bos, J.M., Sanchez, R.C., Tseng, F., Rayyes, N., Ortiz, L., and Sinicrope, C.

    English language proficiency is critical to academic achievement in the United States. For several decades, educators and policymakers have explored strategies to ensure that English language learner students have access to rigorous academic content as much as non–English language learner students. Educating English language learner students is a challenge that has become a civil rights issue and a topic of federal legislation. In 1968, Congress passed the Bilingual Education Act...

  • Father-absense and scholastic performance in primary school children

    1/1/85 - Vandamme, Thomas H., Schwartz, Steven

    Studied the relationship between father absence and academic achievement in 21 females and 19 males from father-present (FP) homes and 21 females and 19 males from father-absent (FA) homes, all of whom were aged 8–12 yrs and of predominantly lower socioeconomic status (SES). Ss completed a battery of psychometric tests, including the Progressive Matrices, the Stanford Diagnostic Arithmetic Test—Levels I and II (Form W) and the GAP Reading Comprehension Test. Differences between...

  • Girl friendly? Investigating the gender gap in national reading tests at age 11

    1/1/09

    Background: In England, there are concerns about boys' under-achievement in reading, and girls consistently do better than boys in national reading tests taken by 11-year-olds. At the same time, there have been accusations of bias in the content of the reading tests. Purpose: This article looks at the performance of boys and girls on the 2008 reading test during its development. Sample: In April 2007, 1423 students from a nationally representative sample of 62 primary schools participated in...

  • Hispanic Educational Attainment: The Effects of Family Background and Nativity

    1/1/95 - Wojtkiewicz, Roger A., Donato, Katharine M.

    This article investigates two sources of the difference in educational attainment between Hispanics and non-Hispanics: family background and nativity. Hispanics have fewer of the family background characteristics that lead to higher educational attainment. In addition, Hispanics are much more likely to be foreign born, a characteristic related to lower educational attainment. Authors' study examines the degree to which these differences in family background and nativity explain differences...

  • How Large an Effect Can We Expect from School Reforms?

    1/1/08 - Konstantopoulos, Spyros, Hedges, Larry V.

    Background/Context: Determining the effectiveness of reform strategies is a major part of the current and future educational research agenda. Effects of education reforms will be evaluated largely quantitatively, and an important aspect of this work will be judging how well reform strategies work. The rhetoric of contemporary school reform suggests two somewhat different solutions to the problem of the interpretive frame. One solution is derived from the idea that the goal of school reform...

  • Immigration, Language, and Education: How Does Language Policy Structure Opportunity?

    1/1/09 - GÁNdara, Patricia, Rumberger, Russell W.

    Background/Context: According to U.S. Census figures, 11 million elementary and secondary students of immigrant families were enrolled in the public schools in October 2005, representing 20% of all students, and this figure is expected to grow in the coming years. Most of these students enter school as English learners (ELs), and most ELs have exceptionally low performance on measures of academic achievement and attainment. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: This article...

  • Inequality in Preschool Education and School Readiness

    1/1/04 - Magnuson, Katherine A., Meyers, Marcia K., Ruhm, Christopher J., Waldfogel, Jane

    Attendance in U.S. preschools has risen substantially in recent decades, but gaps in enrollment between children from advantaged and disadvantaged families remain. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999, we analyze the effect of participation in child care and early education on children's school readiness as measured by early reading and math skills in kindergarten and first grade. We find that children who attended a center or school-based...

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    Let's Try: Mentors

    1/14/10 - Ferguson, Dianne

    The mentors strategy teams up more familiar and comfortable family members with those who need some help getting to know the system. It’s best to match up family members who share similar cultural and/or language background. Teachers or other school personnel can be mentors as well, but family-to-family is often the most successful.

  • Monetary incentives in support of academic achievement: Results of a randomized field trial involving high-achieving, low-resource, ethnically diverse urban adolescents

    1/1/05 - Spencer, Margaret Beale, Noll, Elizabeth, Cassidy, Elaine

    Significant resources have been directed at understanding and alleviating the achievement gap in education. Most programs focused on this aim rely on a top-down approach, including funding for infrastructure improvement, curriculum development, class size, and teacher salaries. This article presents findings from a randomized field trial that evaluates a bottom-up approach in which high-achieving students of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds from poor families are given monetary...

  • PART III: CREATING MULTICULTURAL CLASSROOMS: Under-Prepared Students: Essentials beyond Academics

    1/1/07 - Ford, Theron N., Glimps, Blanche, Giallourakis, Angie

    Teacher education programs continue to struggle with preparing highly qualified teachers ready to meet the academic, cultural, exceptionality and linguistic challenges, which are increasingly the reality of American's classrooms. Despite increased academic rigor in such programs, many emerging teachers are still ill prepared to each effectively students from cultural and racial backgrounds different from their own. The article asserts that this is due in part to a lack of an appropriate...

  • Poverty and educational achievement: why do children from low-income families tend to do less well at school?

    1/1/07 - West, Anne

    There is an achievement gap between children from poor family backgrounds and others; this is not unique to the UK, but found in all other countries of the OECD. This article examines the reasons why children from poorer backgrounds do not, on average, do as well academically at school as those from more advantaged backgrounds. It argues that the family, income and material resources are highly significant, although schools also play an important role. Possible implications for policy are...

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