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  • Social Class is Dead. Long Live Social Class! Stereotype Threat among Low Socioeconomic Status Individuals

    1/1/07 - Spencer, Bettina, Castano, Emanuele

    Stereotype threat effects occur when members of a stigmatized group perform poorly on a task because they fear confirming a negative stereotype that is associated with their ingroup. The present study investigates whether the observed achievement gap in standardized testing between high- and low-socioeconomic status (SES) American students can be due, in part, to this phenomenon. Participants were placed in one of four conditions that varied in level of “threat” related to socioeconomic...

  • Social status and the academic achievement gap: A social dominance perspective

    1/1/01 - Van Laar, Colette, Sidanius, Jim

    In this paper the authors sketch several mechanisms by which low social status is transformed into low academic performance. Using the perspective of social dominance theory, the authors review 3 processes by which this transformation takes place. These processes include (1) the effects of lower economic, cultural, and social capital; (2) the effects of personal and institutional discrimination; and (3) reactions to low social status by members of low status groups. It is argued that members...

  • Stereotype Threat and the Social and Scientific Contexts of the Race Achievement Gap

    1/1/05 - Cohen, Geoffrey L., Sherman, David K.

    Comments on an article by Paul Sackett, Chaitra Hardison and Michael Cullen entitled On Interpreting Stereotype Threat as Accounting for African American-White Differences on Cognitive Tests (see record 2004-10043-001). In their article, Sackett, Hardison, and Cullen (see record 2000-16592-021) critiqued misrepresentations of the original stereotype threat findings presented by Steele and Aronson. They criticized representations of the research that suggest that stereotype threat explains...

  • Still Separate and Unequal: Examining Race, Opportunity, and School Achievement in "Integrated" Suburbs

    1/1/06 - Diamond, John B.

    Recent research examines the Black/White achievement gap in integrated, affluent suburban schools. This gap is particularly vexing more than 50 years after the Brown v. Board of Education (1954) decision emphasized creating educational equity through school desegregation. Drawing on a case study of one suburban school district, this article details the structural, institutional, and symbolic inequalities that characterize such settings and contribute to educational inequality. The case...

  • STRUCTURAL INEQUITIES AND THE ACHIEVEMENT GAP IN URBAN SCHOOLS

    1/1/04 - Talbert-Johnson, Carolyn

    If teachers represent a child's most important asset, they also can be a child's greatest liability, especially in states where a shortage of well-qualified teachers impedes the academic progress of African American students in learning contexts. The author asserts that a transformation in practices must occur in teacher education programs if these programs are to become places where preservice candidates learn to adopt pedagogies that are instrumental in the academic achievement of African...

  • Student Success Skills: A Promising Program to Close the Academic Achievement Gap for African American and Latino Students

    1/1/07 - Miranda, Alexis, Webb, Linda, Brigman, Greg, Peluso, Paul

    Academic achievement data from four previous Student Success Skills (SSS) studies were aggregated and examined to determine if there were differential effects in improved test scores among White, Latino, and African American students. Results showed that posttest scores for the treatment group were significantly higher than the comparison group in math as well as reading. There were no interactions or main effects for ethnicity. White, Latino, and African American students showed similar...

  • Tackling Male Underachievement: Enhancing a Strengths-Based Learning Environment for Middle School Boys

    1/1/08 - Clark, Mary Ann, Flower, Kelly, Walton, Jonathan, Oakley, Erin

    During the past decade, there has been an increasing gender achievement gap with male students lagging behind their female counterparts on a number of important indicators of school success. This article examines recommendations and strategies for school counselors working with middle school boys to enhance the learning environment, to promote strengths, and to encourage positive attitudes toward academic achievement and future planning. Collaboration with teachers, administrators, parents...

  • The Achievement Gap-Do We Need a New Strategy?

    1/1/07 - Kulm, Gerald

    The article presents views and insights of the author concerning the disparity in achievement between white and minority students on major assessment of mathematics learning such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in the U.S. The recent NAEP report indicated that overall achievement in mathematics continues to improve at a slow and steady rate. The author also mentions the new reform strategy of providing higher standards and more testing.

  • The best laid plans: Teachers in-class decisions to depart from their lesson plans

    1/1/96 - Bailey, K. M., K. M. Bailey, D. Nunan

    This chapter begins with the author's own voice as a language learner and then carries her over the bridge of a professional puzzle, through the research literature and into the role of a classroom researcher, listening to language teachers' voices. The issue the author wishes to examine is the decision making of experienced teachers - those myraids points in our daily lives as professionals when we must make an on-line judgement as to what is best for our students, whether to stay with the...

  • The Black-White "achievement gap" as a perennial challenge of urban science education: A sociocultural and historical overview with implications for research and practice

    1/1/01 - Norman, Obed, Ault, Charles R., Jr., Bentz, Bonnie, Meskimen, Lloyd

    Explores the academic achievement gap between African American and White students in urban science classrooms. History shows that this gap existed for groups other than African Americans. The authors examine how historical and sociocultural factors in the manifestation and eventual disappearance of the gap for these groups may shed light on the present problem. The authors conclude that the sociocultural position of groups is crucial to understanding the scholastic performance of students...

  • The black-white-other achievement gap: Testing theories of academic performance among multiracial and monoracial adolescents

    1/1/09 - Herman, Melissa R.

    The study presented here tested three theories of racial differences in academic performance among monoracial and multiracial high school students. These theories (status attainment, oppositional culture, and educational attitudes) were developed to explain differences in achievement among monoracial groups, but the study tested how the theories apply to a multiracial sample. The results show that ethnic identity and experiences of ethnic discrimination are not strong factors in explaining...

  • The Black-White-Other Achievement Gap: Testing Theories of Academic Performance Among Multiracial and Monoracial Adolescents

    1/1/09 - Herman, Melissa R.

    The study presented here tested three theories of racial differences in academic performance among monoracial and multiracial high school students. These theories (status attainment, oppositional culture, and educational attitudes) were developed to explain differences in achievement among monoracial groups, but the study tested how the theories apply to a multiracial sample. The results show that ethnic identity and experiences of ethnic discrimination are not strong factors in explaining...

  • The Black-White-Other Achievement Gap: Testing Theories of Academic Performance Among Multiracial and Monoracial Adolescents

    1/1/09 - Herman, Melissa R.

    The study presented here tested three theories of racial differences in academic performance among monoracial and multiracial high school students. These theories (status attainment, oppositional culture, and educational attitudes) were developed to explain differences in achievement among monoracial groups, but the study tested how the theories apply to a multiracial sample. The results show that ethnic identity and experiences of ethnic discrimination are not strong factors in explaining...

  • The Case for Early, Targeted Interventions to Prevent Academic Failure

    1/1/07 - Perez-Johnson, Irma, Maynard, Rebecca

    The persistent achievement gaps among children of different race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status in the United States represent an issue that has commanded public, policy, and research attention on and off for about 100 years now, and it is once again in the forefront of policy-making agendas. Debates nevertheless abound on the most promising and cost-effective strategies to address the problem. We examine critically the available evidence on the benefits and costs of early childhood...

  • The Clouded Crystal Ball: Trends in Educational Stratification

    1/1/01 - Alexander, Karl L.

    This paper presents the author's opinion on articles about educational stratification and inequalities in the 2001 issue of Sociology of Education. Things look the way they do in the U.S. owing to a school-quality floor that comes with a high standard of living. Different systems of certification involving examinations and licensing are embedded in different systems of schooling and must be understood by means of conceptualizations that respect the systemic context. But to claim that the...

  • The Diverse Experiences of Hispanic Students in the American Educational System

    1/1/05 - Crosnoe, Robert

    Hispanic students have long been considered at risk in the American educational system. A better understanding of the diverse experiences of Hispanics can help to counteract this risk—in what ways, and where, do they do well or poorly or some mixture of both? To further this understanding, this study applies developmental and demographic perspectives to a representative sample of Hispanic high school students. First, analyses of the sample identified four student profiles based on various...

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