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Tag: attitudes

  • Stereotype Threat and the Social and Scientific Contexts of the Race Achievement Gap

    1/1/05 - Cohen, Geoffrey L., Sherman, David K.

    Comments on an article by Paul Sackett, Chaitra Hardison and Michael Cullen entitled On Interpreting Stereotype Threat as Accounting for African American-White Differences on Cognitive Tests (see record 2004-10043-001). In their article, Sackett, Hardison, and Cullen (see record 2000-16592-021) critiqued misrepresentations of the original stereotype threat findings presented by Steele and Aronson. They criticized representations of the research that suggest that stereotype threat explains...

  • Stereotype Threat Does Not Live by Steele and Aronson (1995) Alone

    1/1/04 - Steele, Claude M., Aronson, Joshua A.

    This comment notes that P. R. Sackett et al (see record 2004-10043-001) have raised a concern: that 29 mischaracterizations of an experiment from C. M. Steele and J. Aronson (see record 1996-12938-001) spread over 8 years of media reports, journal articles, and textbooks could mislead teachers, students, researchers, policymakers, and parents into believing that the African American-White test-score gap is entirely caused by stereotype and not at all by group differences in opportunities and...

  • Stereotype Threat Undermines Intellectual Performance by Triggering a Disruptive Mental Load

    1/1/04 - Croizet, Jean-Claude, Després, Gérard, Gauzins, Marie-Eve, Huguet, Pascal, Leyens, Jacques-Philippe, Méot, Alain

    Research on stereotype threat has repeatedly demonstrated that the intellectual performance of social groups is particularly sensitive to the situational context in which tests are usually administered. In the present experiment, an adaptation of the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices Test was introduced as a measure of cognitive ability. Results showed that individuals targeted by a reputation of intellectual inferiority scored lower on the test than did other people. However, when the...

  • Stigma Consciousness and the Race Gap in College Academic Achievement

    1/1/05 - Brown, Ryan P., Lee, Monica N.

    Stereotyped individuals vary in how chronically self-conscious they are of their stigmatized status, a variable called stigma consciousness. The present study examined whether stigma consciousness was negatively related to academic achievement in college for academically stigmatized (Black and Hispanic) students, but not for academically non-stigmatized (White and Asian) students. Results revealed that stigmatized students who were high in stigma consciousness had lower GPAs than stigmatized...

  • Tackling Male Underachievement: Enhancing a Strengths-Based Learning Environment for Middle School Boys

    1/1/08 - Clark, Mary Ann, Flower, Kelly, Walton, Jonathan, Oakley, Erin

    During the past decade, there has been an increasing gender achievement gap with male students lagging behind their female counterparts on a number of important indicators of school success. This article examines recommendations and strategies for school counselors working with middle school boys to enhance the learning environment, to promote strengths, and to encourage positive attitudes toward academic achievement and future planning. Collaboration with teachers, administrators, parents...

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    Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results From the 2008–09 Teacher Follow-up Survey

    1/19/10 - Keigher, A.

    The objective of TFS is to provide information about teacher mobility and attrition among elementary and secondary school teachers who teach in grades K–12 in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. In pursuit of this objective, TFS examines the characteristics of those who stay in the teaching profession and those who leave, including retirees. By collecting information on respondents’ attitudes about the teaching profession and job satisfaction (along with demographic data), TFS...

  • The black-white gap in mathematics course taking

    1/1/09 - Kelly, Sean

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, this study investigated differences in the mathematics course taking of white and black students. Because of lower levels of achievement, prior course taking, and lower socioeconomic status, black students are much more likely than are white students to be enrolled in low-track mathematics courses by the 10th grade. Using multilevel models for categorical outcomes, the study found that the black white gap in mathematics course taking...

  • The black-white-other achievement gap: Testing theories of academic performance among multiracial and monoracial adolescents

    1/1/09 - Herman, Melissa R.

    The study presented here tested three theories of racial differences in academic performance among monoracial and multiracial high school students. These theories (status attainment, oppositional culture, and educational attitudes) were developed to explain differences in achievement among monoracial groups, but the study tested how the theories apply to a multiracial sample. The results show that ethnic identity and experiences of ethnic discrimination are not strong factors in explaining...

  • The Black-White-Other Achievement Gap: Testing Theories of Academic Performance Among Multiracial and Monoracial Adolescents

    1/1/09 - Herman, Melissa R.

    The study presented here tested three theories of racial differences in academic performance among monoracial and multiracial high school students. These theories (status attainment, oppositional culture, and educational attitudes) were developed to explain differences in achievement among monoracial groups, but the study tested how the theories apply to a multiracial sample. The results show that ethnic identity and experiences of ethnic discrimination are not strong factors in explaining...

  • The Black-White-Other Achievement Gap: Testing Theories of Academic Performance Among Multiracial and Monoracial Adolescents

    1/1/09 - Herman, Melissa R.

    The study presented here tested three theories of racial differences in academic performance among monoracial and multiracial high school students. These theories (status attainment, oppositional culture, and educational attitudes) were developed to explain differences in achievement among monoracial groups, but the study tested how the theories apply to a multiracial sample. The results show that ethnic identity and experiences of ethnic discrimination are not strong factors in explaining...

  • The cultural gap hypothesis as an explanation for the achievement patterns of Mexican-American students

    1/1/87 - Buenning, Meredith, Tollefson, Nona

    Investigated the hypothesis that the academic achievement of Mexican-American students could be explained in part by a conflict in the values of Mexican-American and Anglo-American cultures. 56 Mexican-American and 57 Anglo-American 5th-8th grade students, their parents, and teachers reported their adherence to traditional school values and their view of the importance of field-independent behaviors to success in school. Differences in perceptions and values were observed between cultures...

  • The gender gap in language achievement: The role of school-related attitudes of class groups

    1/1/06 - Van de Gaer, Eva, Pustjens, Heidi, Van Damme, Jan, De Munter, Agnes

    The present study was designed to examine how the attitudinal composition of class groups is related to the gender gap in language achievement at the end of secondary education. Data were drawn from the LOSO project and multilevel analyses were used. The results showed that the attitudes of the class groups, and, more specifically, the attitudes of same-sex classmates, had a stronger impact on the language achievement of boys than on the language achievement of girls. No gender differences...

  • The Influence of Differential Community Perceptions on the Provision of Equal Educational Opportunities

    1/1/67 - Anderson, James G., Safar, Dwight

    Through extensive interviews with community members and school personnel in two multicultural Southwestern communities, the authors of this study attempt to demonstrate the importance of perceptions and attitudes in the provision of equal educational opportunity for Spanish-American and Indian children. The findings demonstrate a ubiquitous feeling that Spanish-American and Indian children are less capable of achieving desirable goals than are their Anglo contemporaries. This lack of...

  • Understanding the Gap in Mathematics Achievement of Malaysian Students

    1/1/09 - Ismail, Noor Azina

    Of 46 countries that participated in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study in 2003 (I. V. S. Mullis, M. O. Martin, E. J. Gonzalez, & S. J. Chrostowski, 2004), Malaysia was ranked 10th in international scores of mathematics achievement for 8th-grade students. The present author aimed to examine the importance of students' home backgrounds, resources for learning, activities, and attitudes toward learning mathematics in accounting for high student achievement in...

  • Using Correlational and Prediction Data to Enhance Student Achievement in K-12 Schools: A Practical Application for School Counselors

    1/1/06 - Ware, William B., Galassi, John P.

    Correlational data and regression analysis provide the school counselor with a method to describe growth in achievement test scores from elementary to high school. Using Microsoft Excel,, this article shows the reader in a step-by-step manner how to describe this growth pattern and how to evaluate interventions that attempt to enhance achievement and to reduce the achievement gap among ethnic groups. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

  • Using the Critical Thinking Belief Appraisal to assess the rigor gap

    1/1/08 - Torff, Bruce

    In a line of research employing a survey instrument, the Critical Thinking Belief Appraisal, teachers supported critical-thinking (CT) activities more for high-than low-advantage learners, likely exacerbating a "rigor gap" implicated in persistent achievement gaps. Such beliefs were less likely to be espoused by expert teachers than randomly selected ones, and teacher-education programs mitigated these beliefs but did not expunge them, suggesting a need for interventions that foster belief...

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