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Tag: applies

  • Elementary School Counselors and Teachers: Collaborators for Higher Student Achievement

    1/1/08 - Sink, Christopher A.

    In this article I contend that elementary school teachers need to work more closely with school counselors to enhance student learning and academic performance and to narrow the achievement gap among student groups. Research showing the influence that counselors can exert on the educational process is summarized. Using the American School Counselor Association's organization framework for structuring counseling and guidance programs, I also illustrate where the educative roles of teachers...

  • Equal Access to Content Instruction for English Learners: An Example from Science

    1/1/12 - Brown, Z.A. & DiRanna, K.

    Equal access to content instruction is the foundation of educational equity—it reduces opportunity gaps that lead to achievement gaps. Achievement gaps lead to gaps in college and career access, which lead to income gaps. Income gaps lead to language gaps, thus perpetuating one of the most critical gaps we face in education. This paper is about the importance of equal meaningful access to content instruction for English learners and how academic-language instruction through content...

  • Exacerbating inequality: the failed promise of the No Child Left Behind Act

    1/1/07 - Hursh, David

    The passage of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) marks the largest intervention of the federal government into education in the history of the United States. NCLB received and continues to receive support, in part because it promises to improve student learning and to close the achievement gap between White students and students of color. However, NCLB has failed to live up to its promises and may exacerbate inequality. Furthermore, by focusing on education as the solution to social and...

  • Examining Disparities in Mathematics Education: Achievement Gap or Opportunity Gap?

    1/1/07 - Flores, Alfinio

    The so-called achievement gap in mathematics is reframed as a problem of unequal opportunities to learn experienced by many low-income students and many Latino and African American students. First, data are presented showing striking and persistent differences on standardized tests among students of different ethnic groups, and socioeconomic levels. Then evidence is presented demonstrating that opportunities to learn mathematics are not equally distributed among all students. Specifically...

  • Family (Dis)Advantage and the Educational Prospects of Better Off African American Youth: How Race Still Matters

    1/1/07 - Gosa, Travis L., Alexander, Karl L.

    While the educational difficulties of poor black students are well documented and have been discussed extensively, the academic performance of well-off African American children has received much less attention. Even with economic and educational resources in the home, well-off African American youth are not achieving at the levels of their white peers. Why is this? A review of relevant literature identifies a set of social processes that pose formidable barriers to the academic and personal...

  • Family Education and Community Power: new structures for new visions in the educational village

    1/1/02 - Breitborde, Mary-Lou, Swiniarski, Louise Boyle

    Noting that differences and inequality of education exist in the United States of America, this paper presents two model educational programs that address the iniquities in American public education. The first model is a collaborative effort of a public school in an urban northeast community, the Robert L. Ford Elementary School of Lynn, Massachusetts, USA and a public supported college of higher education, Salem State College, Salem, Massachusetts, USA, whose joint venture is known as The...

  • Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research.

    1/1/88 - Krueger, R. A.
  • Framing African American Students' Success and Failure in Urban Settings

    1/1/08 - Lewis, Chance W., James, Marlon, Hancock, Stephen, Hill-Jackson, Valerie

    Grounded in critical race theory, this article seeks to frame the ideological positions of success and failure for African American students in urban school settings. First, we revisit national data and research literature that illustrate the ongoing urban Black-White achievement gap. Second, the Matrix of Achievement Paradigms is shared in an attempt to advance the conversation on African American students' achievement. It provides a serviceable organizational tool for framing African...

  • From Research to Policy and Practice: The School of the 21st Century

    1/1/07 - Zigler, Edward, Finn-Stevenson, Matia

    Current education reform policies focus on raising academic achievement and ensuring that all students have access to high-quality education. Because the achievement gap is apparent even before children enter school, the authors believe that education reform must encompass the early childhood years. The current dialogue about universal preschool presents an opportunity to address the need for a national system for early care and education. The authors believe this system should provide...

  • Gap or Gaps: Challenging the Singular Definition of the Achievement Gap

    1/1/06 - Carpenter Ii, Dick M., Ramirez, Al, Severn, Laura

    For decades, researchers examined the ‘achievement gap’ between minority and nonminority students. This singular definition of achievement gap ignores important within-group differences. This article uses National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88) data to examine within-group differences and compares those across Latino, African American, and White populations. Results question the singular definition of achievement gap. Given the importance of how issues are defined, a singular...

  • Gender Differences and Similarities in PISA 2003 Mathematics: A Comparison between the United States and Hong Kong

    1/1/09 - Liu, Ou Lydia, Wilson, Mark

    Differential gender performance in standardized mathematics assessment has long been a heated topic. Gender gaps of varied magnitude have been identified on large-scale assessments in the United States. To continue the investigation, this study examined male and female performance on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 mathematics along four in-depth dimensions (strand, content topics, competency cluster, and item format). Furthermore, to identify the shared and...

  • Helping Struggling Middle School Literacy Learners Achieve Success

    1/1/09 - Palumbo, Anthony, Sanacore, Joseph

    Teachers can help minority children close the academic achievement gap in intermediate and middle school by combining literacy instruction and content-area material. This connection improves reading achievement and increases curriculum knowledge, even if students have previously experienced difficulty with primary school reading. Fortunately, upper-elementary and middle-level learners are still naturally curious, are developing cognitively, and have acquired some basic reading skills...

  • How Large an Effect Can We Expect from School Reforms?

    1/1/08 - Konstantopoulos, Spyros, Hedges, Larry V.

    Background/Context: Determining the effectiveness of reform strategies is a major part of the current and future educational research agenda. Effects of education reforms will be evaluated largely quantitatively, and an important aspect of this work will be judging how well reform strategies work. The rhetoric of contemporary school reform suggests two somewhat different solutions to the problem of the interpretive frame. One solution is derived from the idea that the goal of school reform...

  • Identity, Belonging, and Achievement: A Model, Interventions, Implications

    1/1/08 - Cohen, Geoffrey L., Garcia, Julio

    In this article we discuss how social or group identities affect achievement. We also present a model of identity engagement that describes how a salient social identity can trigger psychological threat and belonging concerns and how these can produce persistent performance decrements, which through feedback loops can increase over time. The character of such processes may be revealed only over time because they are recursive in nature and interact with other factors in chronically...

  • Immigration, Language, and Education: How Does Language Policy Structure Opportunity?

    1/1/09 - GÁNdara, Patricia, Rumberger, Russell W.

    Background/Context: According to U.S. Census figures, 11 million elementary and secondary students of immigrant families were enrolled in the public schools in October 2005, representing 20% of all students, and this figure is expected to grow in the coming years. Most of these students enter school as English learners (ELs), and most ELs have exceptionally low performance on measures of academic achievement and attainment. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: This article...

  • INCREASING PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AMONG ADOLESCENT AFRICAN AMERICAN MALES

    1/1/07 - Martin, Don, Martin, Magy, Gibson, Suzanne Semivan, Wilkins, Jonathan

    African American adolescents disproportionately perform poorly compared to peers in both behavioral and academic aspects of their educational experience. In this study, African American male students participated in an after-school program involving tutoring, group counseling, and various enrichment activities. All students were assessed regarding their behavioral changes using attendance, discipline referrals, suspensions, and expulsions reports. The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT...

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