Journal Article: The Effort-Outcome Gap: Differences for African American and Hispanic Community College Students in Student Engagement and Academic Achievement


Education, Black college students, Student achievements/Community colleges, Hispanic Americans/Education, Engagement (Philosophy)


Greene, Thomas G.; Marti, C. Nathan; McClenney, Kay


2008, September/October


A study examined whether students from various racial and ethnic groups attending two-year colleges differ in the amount of time and energy they devote to educationally effective practices and the extent to which this investment contributes positively to desired outcomes. Findings revealed that African American students reported being more engaged and demonstrated generally lower academic outcomes than their white peers, that Hispanic students exhibited higher levels of engagement only on a mental activities factor, and Hispanic students earned significantly lower grades than their white counterparts. Moreover, results suggested that African American students may be working harder to persist and achieve educational goals that their peers can reach with less effort and engagement because they are generally are less academically at-risk and face fewer institutional barriers.


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