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Category: achievement gap

  • Neighborhood and School Factors in the School Performance of Immigrants’ Children

    1/1/07 - Pong, Suet-ling, Hao, Lingxin

    This article examines the effects of neighborhoods and schools on the achievement gaps between adolescents of different nativities and ethnicities. We show that neighborhood and school conditions are better for natives' than for immigrants' children, and they are the worst for Hispanic immigrants. Using cross-classified hierarchical models, we find that introducing neighborhood and school characteristics helps to account for the disadvantage of Mexican immigrants' children but to reveal the...

  • Opportunity to Learn and English Learner Achievement: Is Increased Content Exposure Beneficial?

    1/1/08 - Aguirre-Munoz, Zenaida, Boscardin, Christy Kim

    This investigation examined the impact of opportunity to learn content and skills targeted by a writing assessment on the achievement of English learners (ELs), including the potential for differential impact of increased exposure to literary analysis and writing instruction. Results revealed several factors contributing to students' writing performance. Student-level and teacher-level variables were found to significantly contribute to writing performance. Although exposure to writing and...

  • Powerful Pedagogy: Learning Communities at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    1/1/08 - Shapiro, Nancy S.

    A recent deluge of national studies and reports warns the United States that our future hangs in the balance because our educational system is failing our society. These studies cite projections that American competitiveness is at risk because we have failed to address a growing demographic inevitability—that the segment of the population that is growing the fastest is comprised of those students who are most at risk in our educational system. An expanding body of research (including the...

  • Pushing Past the Achievement Gap: An Essay on the Language of Deficit

    1/1/07 - Ladson-Billings, Gloria

    Despite the intense focus on the achievement gap that exists between African American, Latino, and other students of color and their White counterparts, the achievement gap discourse keeps us locked in the deficit paradigm. This article challenges us to look at the inherent fallacies of the achievement gap discourse and place students' academic struggles in the larger context of social failure including health, wealth, and funding gaps that impede their school success. [ABSTRACT FROM...

  • Race, School Achievement, and Educational Inequality: Toward a Student-Based Inquiry Perspective

    1/1/07 - Wiggan, Greg

    Over the past four decades, there have been numerous discussions on student achievement and school failure. Within this time, the debate over the causes and consequences of racial differences in achievement has been at the heart of the nation's social and political life. The author discusses the major developments in achievement research over the past century and examines the foremost explanations given for racial differences in school performance, namely, genetic deficiency, social class...

  • School racial composition and academic achievement: the case of Hmong LEP students in the USA

    1/1/08 - Lee, Moosung, Madyun, Na'im

    The existence of the achievement gap is more than just a black-white issue; contrary to stereotypes, it is a concern within Asian homes. Hmong students underachieve in comparison with many East Asian students. Traditional cultural practices and poverty have been identified as explanatory factors. Our data suggest that a more critical factor might be within-school segregation. Utilising a racial exposure statistic, it was found that the more diverse a school became, the higher the achievement...

  • Schools, Poverty, and the Achievement Gap

    1/1/07 - Levin, B. E. N.

    The article discusses a conference that was held in June 2007 in Norway to discuss equity in educational opportunities and thereby close the achievement gap. In the U.S. is the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), which is designed to increase student achievement and in Europe is the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), which is meant to accomplish the same. It is noted that socioeconomic conditions are the most influential force influencing individual student achievement...

  • Separate But Not Yet Equal: The Relation Between School Finance Adequacy Litigation and African American Student Achievement

    1/1/06 - Glen, William J.

    The Black-White achievement gap presents perhaps the most important issue in education. Legal actions play a role in the efforts to reduce and eliminate the gap. School finance adequacy litigation offers the most widely used legal strategy to seek fairer outcomes for children. However, the literature is sparse with regard to the impact such litigation has on student outcomes. This article addresses the extent to which adequacy litigation functions as a means of narrowing the achievement gap...

  • So Many Children Left Behind

    1/1/07 - Stiefel, Leanna, Schwartz, Amy Ellen, Chellman, Colin C.

    Although the No Child Left Behind Act was intended to help "all students meet high academic standards," it is focused on subgroups of low-achieving students. The authors analyze the possible impact of the legislation's requirement for performance reporting by racial subgroup in light of the considerable racial segregation in U.S. schools. In particular, using data on elementary and middle schools in New York State. the authors show that the schools are so highly segregated that more than...

  • Social Class is Dead. Long Live Social Class! Stereotype Threat among Low Socioeconomic Status Individuals

    1/1/07 - Spencer, Bettina, Castano, Emanuele

    Stereotype threat effects occur when members of a stigmatized group perform poorly on a task because they fear confirming a negative stereotype that is associated with their ingroup. The present study investigates whether the observed achievement gap in standardized testing between high- and low-socioeconomic status (SES) American students can be due, in part, to this phenomenon. Participants were placed in one of four conditions that varied in level of “threat” related to socioeconomic...

  • SOCIAL SCIENCE AND THE CITIZEN

    1/1/04 - Lewis, Lionel

    Presents news related to education, aging, employment, and women and violence in the U.S. as of March 2004. Achievement gap among high school graduates; Importance of improving the health of the aging population; Findings of a study on the employment of foreign workers in the U.S.; Risk posed by cohabiting to women.

  • STRUCTURAL INEQUITIES AND THE ACHIEVEMENT GAP IN URBAN SCHOOLS

    1/1/04 - Talbert-Johnson, Carolyn

    If teachers represent a child's most important asset, they also can be a child's greatest liability, especially in states where a shortage of well-qualified teachers impedes the academic progress of African American students in learning contexts. The author asserts that a transformation in practices must occur in teacher education programs if these programs are to become places where preservice candidates learn to adopt pedagogies that are instrumental in the academic achievement of African...

  • The achievement gap between science classrooms and historic inequalities

    1/1/08 - Howie, Sarah, Scherman, Vanessa

    Abstract: In the past politics deprived many African children (in particular) in South Africa the opportunity of achieving quality education. This was most especially true in subjects such as mathematics and science. In this research the science teacher-level data from Third International Mathematics and Science Study 1999 (TIMSS’99) were analysed with a view to evaluating the politicized gap between what are viewed as well-functioning and provisioned classrooms (predominantly housing...

  • The Achievement Gap in Social Studies and Science Starts Early

    1/1/06 - Chapin, June R.

    The article focuses on the findings of a longitudinal study which investigated social studies and science education achievement gaps in early childhood. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, fifty-one science and social studies test items were combined into a General Knowledge Test. The test was administered individually to each respondent with no reading required. The analysis of the scores of the General Knowledge Test are discussed. The first years in education are critical for...

  • The black–white test score gap and early home environment

    1/1/09 - Yeung, Wei-Jun Jean, Pfeiffer, Kathryn M.

    Based on panel data for three age cohorts of children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we examine how early home environment contributes to black¿white achievement gaps at different developmental stages and the extent to which early gaps contribute to later racial achievement gaps. We find large black¿white test score differences among children of all ages even before children start formal schooling. Except for the oldest cohort, the gaps for all tests widened when children¿s...

  • The Impact of an Early Literacy Initiative on the Long Term Academic Success of Diverse Students

    1/1/08 - Zimmerman, Stella SiWan, Rodriguez, Michael C., Rewey, Kirsten L., Heidemann, Sandra L.

    The primary goal of the Words Work (WW) early literacy initiative was to prepare diverse students to become successful learners in school. Four groups of students were followed over 6 years: students from traditional Head Start (HS) centers, students from augmented HS centers (WW students), students eligible for HS but not enrolled (waitlist or WL), and a random sample of non-Head Start students (NHS). Students received school readiness instruction at approximately 4 years of age, and their...

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