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Category: achievement gap

  • Confronting the Achievement Gap

    1/1/07 - Gardner, David

    The article gives an in-depth look at the achievement gap in the United States educational system in terms of racial divisions. Claims that the gap does not exist are denounced by the author, citing problems of unequal funding and inherent racial prejudices still present in the system. Sociological causes for the discrepancy are listed, such as poverty, generational ideologies and long term effects from racist historical practices. The confrontation of these issues on a national level are...

  • Creating Schools Where Race Does Not Predict Achievement: The Role and Significance of Race in the Racial Achievement Gap

    1/1/08 - Noguera, Pedro A.

    This article explores the ways in which race is implicated in efforts to address the achievement gap in U.S. schools. Through an analysis of the theoretical and historical issues that have framed the relationship between race and intellectual ability, the author explains why the effort to close the achievement gap is politically and socially significant. The efforts of two suburban school districts to address the achievement gap is presented to illustrate why some schools are making progress...

  • Development of the Literacy Achievement Gap: A Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Through Third Grade

    1/1/07 - Foster, Wayne A., Miller, Merideth

    Purpose: The major goal of this study was to specify the developmental trajectories for phonics and early text comprehension skills of children from kindergarten through third grade. Method: Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (N = 12,261) were used in this study. The participants were divided into 3 school readiness groups based on an assessment of literacy skill development at the time of entrance into kindergarten. The different groups were tracked on phonics and text...

  • Districtwide Instructional Reform: Using Sociocultural Theory to Link Professional Learning to Organizational Support

    1/1/08 - Gallucci, Chrysan

    No Child Left Behind Act accountability pressures and calls to close achievement gaps between groups of students have challenged school districts to achieve systemwide instructional improvement. These policies create learning challenges for classroom teachers and for school and district leaders. This article engages questions about organizational support for professional learning in the context of reform initiatives. A theoretical lens--called the Vygotsky Space--is used to analyze case...

  • Effects of single-sex and coeducational schooling on the gender gap in educational achievement

    1/1/08 - Gibb, Sheree J., Fergusson, David M., Horwood, L. John

    This study examined the effects of single-sex and coeducational schooling on the gender gap in educational achievement to age 25. Data were drawn from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 individuals born in 1977 in Christchurch, New Zealand. After adjustment for a series of covariates related to school choice, there were significant differences between single-sex and coeducational schools in the size and direction of the gender gap...

  • Elementary School Counselors and Teachers: Collaborators for Higher Student Achievement

    1/1/08 - Sink, Christopher A.

    In this article I contend that elementary school teachers need to work more closely with school counselors to enhance student learning and academic performance and to narrow the achievement gap among student groups. Research showing the influence that counselors can exert on the educational process is summarized. Using the American School Counselor Association's organization framework for structuring counseling and guidance programs, I also illustrate where the educative roles of teachers...

  • Eradicating the Achievement Gap

    1/1/08 - Robertson, Harvetta

    The article discusses ways on attaining the goal of abolishing the achievement gap still present among U.S. schools in the 21st century. According to the author, despite of the technological advancements and institutional practices that are research-based, academic achievement and equal learning opportunities for U.S. students are not yet achieved. An overview of the ways to help students associate their knowledge with th instructional content is offered. It also suggests that participation...

  • Eradicating the Achievement Gap: History, Education, and Reformation

    1/1/08 - Allen, Sharonda

    The article discusses how the achievement gap can be abolished through tracing the roots of public school education, a curriculum applicable to all students and through reform efforts of educators. Senior fellow of the J. McDonald Williams Institute defined achievement gap as examining differences in racial and socioeconomic factors affecting student achievement in U.S. schools. An overview of the suggestions for reform efforts of educators is offered. The author suggests that educators must...

  • Examining Disparities in Mathematics Education: Achievement Gap or Opportunity Gap?

    1/1/07 - Flores, Alfinio

    The so-called achievement gap in mathematics is reframed as a problem of unequal opportunities to learn experienced by many low-income students and many Latino and African American students. First, data are presented showing striking and persistent differences on standardized tests among students of different ethnic groups, and socioeconomic levels. Then evidence is presented demonstrating that opportunities to learn mathematics are not equally distributed among all students. Specifically...

  • Family (Dis)Advantage and the Educational Prospects of Better Off African American Youth: How Race Still Matters

    1/1/07 - Gosa, Travis L., Alexander, Karl L.

    While the educational difficulties of poor black students are well documented and have been discussed extensively, the academic performance of well-off African American children has received much less attention. Even with economic and educational resources in the home, well-off African American youth are not achieving at the levels of their white peers. Why is this? A review of relevant literature identifies a set of social processes that pose formidable barriers to the academic and personal...

  • Framing African American Students' Success and Failure in Urban Settings

    1/1/08 - Lewis, Chance W., James, Marlon, Hancock, Stephen, Hill-Jackson, Valerie

    Grounded in critical race theory, this article seeks to frame the ideological positions of success and failure for African American students in urban school settings. First, we revisit national data and research literature that illustrate the ongoing urban Black-White achievement gap. Second, the Matrix of Achievement Paradigms is shared in an attempt to advance the conversation on African American students' achievement. It provides a serviceable organizational tool for framing African...

  • From Research to Policy and Practice: The School of the 21st Century

    1/1/07 - Zigler, Edward, Finn-Stevenson, Matia

    Current education reform policies focus on raising academic achievement and ensuring that all students have access to high-quality education. Because the achievement gap is apparent even before children enter school, the authors believe that education reform must encompass the early childhood years. The current dialogue about universal preschool presents an opportunity to address the need for a national system for early care and education. The authors believe this system should provide...

  • Gap or Gaps: Challenging the Singular Definition of the Achievement Gap

    1/1/06 - Carpenter Ii, Dick M., Ramirez, Al, Severn, Laura

    For decades, researchers examined the ‘achievement gap’ between minority and nonminority students. This singular definition of achievement gap ignores important within-group differences. This article uses National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88) data to examine within-group differences and compares those across Latino, African American, and White populations. Results question the singular definition of achievement gap. Given the importance of how issues are defined, a singular...

  • Helping Struggling Middle School Literacy Learners Achieve Success

    1/1/09 - Palumbo, Anthony, Sanacore, Joseph

    Teachers can help minority children close the academic achievement gap in intermediate and middle school by combining literacy instruction and content-area material. This connection improves reading achievement and increases curriculum knowledge, even if students have previously experienced difficulty with primary school reading. Fortunately, upper-elementary and middle-level learners are still naturally curious, are developing cognitively, and have acquired some basic reading skills...

  • How Large an Effect Can We Expect from School Reforms?

    1/1/08 - Konstantopoulos, Spyros, Hedges, Larry V.

    Background/Context: Determining the effectiveness of reform strategies is a major part of the current and future educational research agenda. Effects of education reforms will be evaluated largely quantitatively, and an important aspect of this work will be judging how well reform strategies work. The rhetoric of contemporary school reform suggests two somewhat different solutions to the problem of the interpretive frame. One solution is derived from the idea that the goal of school reform...

  • Identity, Belonging, and Achievement: A Model, Interventions, Implications

    1/1/08 - Cohen, Geoffrey L., Garcia, Julio

    In this article we discuss how social or group identities affect achievement. We also present a model of identity engagement that describes how a salient social identity can trigger psychological threat and belonging concerns and how these can produce persistent performance decrements, which through feedback loops can increase over time. The character of such processes may be revealed only over time because they are recursive in nature and interact with other factors in chronically...

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