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Category: Social

  • Advocacy as a Critical Role for Urban School Counselors: Working Toward Equity and Social Justice

    1/1/05 - Bemak, Fred, Chung, Rita Chi-Ying

    The academic achievement gap of students of color and low-income students as compared to middle and upper socioeconomic students and White students has been clearly documented. Historically the long-standing role of the school counselor has contributed to the status quo of these inequities, inadvertently maintaining educational and social disparities. This has been reflected in school counselors' training, role or job descriptions, and actual practice. This article explores the need for a...

  • Changes in the Black-White gap in achievement test scores

    1/1/99 - Hedges, Larry V., Nowell, Amy

    Two questions of scholarly and public policy interest concerning the well-documented racial difference in scores on achievement tests are How much of the racial difference ("gap") can be attributed to social-class differences between Blacks and Whites? and How much has the racial gap changed over the past 30 years? To address these questions, the authors analyzed evidence from seven probability samples of national populations of adolescents from 1965-1996. The Ss were in their last year of...

  • Intractable Self-Fulfilling Prophecies Fifty Years After Brown v. Board of Education

    1/1/04 - Weinstein, Rhona S., Gregory, Anne, Strambler, Michael J.

    The civil rights struggle for equal educational opportunity has yet to be achieved at the start of the 21st century. Inequality persists but problem and remedy are refrained from integrating schools, to ensuring equal access in resegregated settings, to closing the performance gap. As seen through ecological theory (R. S. Weinstein, 2002b), complex, multilayered, and interactive negative self-fulfilling prophecies create or perpetuate educational inequities and unequal outcomes. Society has...

  • Pushing past the achievement gap: An essay on the language of deficit

    1/1/07 - Ladson-Billings, Gloria

    Despite the intense focus on the achievement gap that exists between African American, Latino, and other students of color and their White counterparts, the achievement gap discourse keeps us locked in the deficit paradigm. This article challenges us to look at the inherent fallacies of the achievement gap discourse and place students' academic struggles in the larger context of social failure including health, wealth, and funding gaps that impede their school success. (PsycINFO Database...

  • Race, class, and educational opportunity: Trends in the socioilogy of education

    1/1/95 - Epps, Edgar G.

    Reviews 52 articles, published 1965–1995, on the effect of social class on educational opportunity for African Americans. Social allocation processes in schools, the relationship of poverty to academic achievement, and educational attainment are considered. The presence of a racial gap in education is also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA )

  • Stereotype Threat Undermines Intellectual Performance by Triggering a Disruptive Mental Load

    1/1/04 - Croizet, Jean-Claude, Després, Gérard, Gauzins, Marie-Eve, Huguet, Pascal, Leyens, Jacques-Philippe, Méot, Alain

    Research on stereotype threat has repeatedly demonstrated that the intellectual performance of social groups is particularly sensitive to the situational context in which tests are usually administered. In the present experiment, an adaptation of the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices Test was introduced as a measure of cognitive ability. Results showed that individuals targeted by a reputation of intellectual inferiority scored lower on the test than did other people. However, when the...

  • The Black-White "achievement gap" as a perennial challenge of urban science education: A sociocultural and historical overview with implications for research and practice

    1/1/01 - Norman, Obed, Ault, Charles R., Jr., Bentz, Bonnie, Meskimen, Lloyd

    Explores the academic achievement gap between African American and White students in urban science classrooms. History shows that this gap existed for groups other than African Americans. The authors examine how historical and sociocultural factors in the manifestation and eventual disappearance of the gap for these groups may shed light on the present problem. The authors conclude that the sociocultural position of groups is crucial to understanding the scholastic performance of students...

  • When Are Racial Disparities in Education the Result of Racial Discrimination? A Social Science Perspective

    1/1/03 - Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin

    In this article I seek to answer the question, "When are racial disparities in education the result of racial discrimination?" To answer it I synthesize the social science research on racially correlated disparities in education. My review draws from the sociology, anthropology, political science, psychology, history, and education literatures. I organize explanations into six categories: biological determinism, social structure, school organization and opportunities to learn, family...

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