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Category: Racial and Ethnic Differences

  • On Interpreting Research on Stereotype Threat and Test Performance

    1/1/05 - Sackett, Paul R., Hardison, Chaitra M., Cullen, Michael J.

    The authors comment on the comments (see records 2005-03019-016; 2005-03019-017; 2005-03019-018) made on their original article entitled <i>On Interpreting Stereotype Threat as Accounting for African American-White Differences on Cognitive Tests</i> (see record 2004-10043-001). The authors welcome the thoughtful insights of Wicherts, Helms, and Cohen and Sherman, and they hope that these comments stimulate further critical analysis of methodological issues associated with stereotype threat...

  • Pushing past the achievement gap: An essay on the language of deficit

    1/1/07 - Ladson-Billings, Gloria

    Despite the intense focus on the achievement gap that exists between African American, Latino, and other students of color and their White counterparts, the achievement gap discourse keeps us locked in the deficit paradigm. This article challenges us to look at the inherent fallacies of the achievement gap discourse and place students' academic struggles in the larger context of social failure including health, wealth, and funding gaps that impede their school success. (PsycINFO Database...

  • Relating test-taking attitudes and skills and stereotype threat effects to the racial gap in cognitive ability test performance

    1/1/03 - Nguyen, Hannah-Hanh D., O'Neal, Alisha, Ryan, Ann Marie

    This research extended past studies on race effects and stereotype threat (ST) effects outside the academic domain, as well as exploring the mediating role of test-related cognition, motivation, and emotionality in the Black-White cognitive ability test performance differences. One hundred seventy-two undergraduates took a simulated personnel selection test and responded to measures of attitudinal and test-taking skills prior to and after the test. Half of the participants were told that the...

  • Review of Black American students in an affluent suburb: A study of academic disengagement

    1/1/05 - Drain, J. Denise

    Reviews the book, <i>Black American students in an affluent suburb: A study of academic disengagement</i> by J. U. Ogbu (see record 2003-04692-000). The purpose of this book is to report findings of a research project that investigated the achievement gap between African American and White students in the community of Shaker Heights, OH. The topic of the racial achievement gap is quite current and interesting to many school administrators, government agencies, and community leaders. The...

  • School choice, racial segregation and test-score gaps: Evidence from North Carolina's charter school program

    1/1/07 - Bifulco, Robert, Ladd, Helen F.

    Using panel data that track individual students from year to year, we examine the effects of charter schools in North Carolina on racial segregation and black-white test score gaps. We find that North Carolina's system of charter schools has increased the racial isolation of both black and white students, and has widened the achievement gap. Moreover, the relatively large negative effects of charter schools on the achievement of black students is driven by students who transfer into charter...

  • Stereotype Threat and the Social and Scientific Contexts of the Race Achievement Gap

    1/1/05 - Cohen, Geoffrey L., Sherman, David K.

    Comments on an article by Paul Sackett, Chaitra Hardison and Michael Cullen entitled On Interpreting Stereotype Threat as Accounting for African American-White Differences on Cognitive Tests (see record 2004-10043-001). In their article, Sackett, Hardison, and Cullen (see record 2000-16592-021) critiqued misrepresentations of the original stereotype threat findings presented by Steele and Aronson. They criticized representations of the research that suggest that stereotype threat explains...

  • Stereotype Threat Does Not Live by Steele and Aronson (1995) Alone

    1/1/04 - Steele, Claude M., Aronson, Joshua A.

    This comment notes that P. R. Sackett et al (see record 2004-10043-001) have raised a concern: that 29 mischaracterizations of an experiment from C. M. Steele and J. Aronson (see record 1996-12938-001) spread over 8 years of media reports, journal articles, and textbooks could mislead teachers, students, researchers, policymakers, and parents into believing that the African American-White test-score gap is entirely caused by stereotype and not at all by group differences in opportunities and...

  • Stigma Consciousness and the Race Gap in College Academic Achievement

    1/1/05 - Brown, Ryan P., Lee, Monica N.

    Stereotyped individuals vary in how chronically self-conscious they are of their stigmatized status, a variable called stigma consciousness. The present study examined whether stigma consciousness was negatively related to academic achievement in college for academically stigmatized (Black and Hispanic) students, but not for academically non-stigmatized (White and Asian) students. Results revealed that stigmatized students who were high in stigma consciousness had lower GPAs than stigmatized...

  • The Black-White "achievement gap" as a perennial challenge of urban science education: A sociocultural and historical overview with implications for research and practice

    1/1/01 - Norman, Obed, Ault, Charles R., Jr., Bentz, Bonnie, Meskimen, Lloyd

    Explores the academic achievement gap between African American and White students in urban science classrooms. History shows that this gap existed for groups other than African Americans. The authors examine how historical and sociocultural factors in the manifestation and eventual disappearance of the gap for these groups may shed light on the present problem. The authors conclude that the sociocultural position of groups is crucial to understanding the scholastic performance of students...

  • The cultural gap hypothesis as an explanation for the achievement patterns of Mexican-American students

    1/1/87 - Buenning, Meredith, Tollefson, Nona

    Investigated the hypothesis that the academic achievement of Mexican-American students could be explained in part by a conflict in the values of Mexican-American and Anglo-American cultures. 56 Mexican-American and 57 Anglo-American 5th-8th grade students, their parents, and teachers reported their adherence to traditional school values and their view of the importance of field-independent behaviors to success in school. Differences in perceptions and values were observed between cultures...

  • The impact of racial and ethnic segregation on the achievement gap in California high schools

    1/1/92 - Rumberger, Russell W., Willms, J. Douglas

    Examined the extent and impact of racial and ethnic segregation in California high schools during the 1988-1989 school year. Using 2 widely used indices of segregation, the extent of segregation was measured in all 784 regular high schools in the state and in all 112 high schools in the 6 largest districts. Segregation was widespread throughout the state, and the extent of segregation varied widely among ethnic groups and among the 6 largest districts. Significant differences were found in...

  • White enrollment in nonpublic schools, public school racial composition, and student performance

    1/1/00 - Bankston, Carl L., III, Caldas, Stephen J.

    Examined the relationship between the racial composition of public schools in school districts and the percentages of White students in nonpublic schools in those districts. Specifically, 2 questions were asked: (1) Is the enrollment of Whites in non-public schools associated with minority predominance in public schools? and (2) Is there an association between the enrollment of Whites outside of the public school system and the academic performance of students in the public school system...

  • Why the gap between Black and White performance in school?: A report on the effects of race on student achievement in the St. Louis public schools

    1/1/97 - Trent, William T.

    Presents the report submitted to the court during the 1996 Liddell hearings, which is divided into 2 parts and revised to incorporate points raised during W. T. Trent's testimony on March 19, 1996. Part 1 analyzes the effects of race on student achievement and is based on data supplied by the St. Louis Public School District, cohort files covering 4 cohorts of students, and call-in enrollment data files. Data for the effects of race, student background, prior test scores, school...

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