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Category: Racial and Ethnic Differences

  • A "gap-gazing" fetish in mathematics education? Problematizing research on the achievement gap

    1/1/08 - Gutiérrez, Rochelle

    A substantial amount of research in mathematics education seeks to document disparities in achievement between middle-class White students and students who are Black, Latina/Latino, First Nations, English language learners, or working class. I outline the dangers in maintaining an achievement-gap focus. These dangers include offering little more than a static picture of inequities, supporting deficit thinking and negative narratives about students of color and working-class students...

  • A different view of the IQ-achievement gap

    1/1/76 - Gordon, Margaret T.

    Investigated the relationship between children's IQ and scholastic achievement scores and race, occupational attainment, and social mobility of their parents. The IQ and achievement test scores of 1,102 Chicago area 5th and 6th graders--Black and White, middle- and working-class--were aggregated into 7 cohorts of approximately equal IQ scores. Within these cohorts differences in achievement emerged which could not be attributed to race- or class-linked intellectual discrepancies. Among Ss...

  • Accountability in a Postdesegregation Era: The Continuing Significance of Racial Segregation in Florida's Schools

    1/1/04 - Borman, Kathryn M., Eitle, Tamela McNulty, Michael, Deanna, Eitle, David J., Lee, Reginald, Johnson, Larry, Cobb-Roberts, Deirdre, Dorn, Sherman, Shircliffe, Barbara

    In the wake of both the end of court-ordered school desegregation and the growing popularity of accountability as a mechanism to maximize student achievement, the authors explore the association between racial segregation and the percentage of students passing high-stakes tests in Florida's schools. Results suggest that segregation matters in predicting school-level performance on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test after control for other known and purported predictors of standardized...

  • Achievement disparities between minority and nonminority students in suburban schools

    1/1/90 - Levine, Daniel U., Eubanks, Eugene E.

    National data show that in 1986, African-American (AA) and Hispanic (HS) 13-yr-old students with college-educated parents had average reading proficiency scores 16 and 13 points (respectively) below the average for comparable White students. Reading and spelling performance data for 5th-8th graders at a suburban school show that in 1988, AAs were near or above the national norm in spelling but were clearly below the national norm in reading comprehension. Data on AAs' performance in southern...

  • An Early Gap in Black-White Mathematics Achievement: Holding School and Home Accountable in an Affluent City School District

    1/1/03 - Hughes, Sherick A.

    This article uses descriptive statistics and regression modeling to test effects of ethnicity and socioeconomic status on third-graders. Results implicate ethnicity and socioeconomic status as a significant influence on third-graders' mathematics scores. Findings suggest that strong social forces sustain the Black-White mathematics achievement gap even when affluent school resources are available. Results also suggest a need for the observed affluent districts and Black families in them to...

  • Attributed for academic achievement: A comparative study in tribal and non-tribal settings

    1/1/08 - Rath, Muralidhar

    The failure or poor performance of tribal students in their academic tests has initiated deep debates and grave discussions now-a-days. It is worthwhile to note that tribal students in India are not only they who reside in ashrams or hostels of different urban schools and colleges, and are mostly compared by researchers with non-tribal students. Rather, a major portion of tribals dwell in rural and tribal settings and some of them pursue their education in poorly maintained schools and...

  • Changes in the Black-White gap in achievement test scores

    1/1/99 - Hedges, Larry V., Nowell, Amy

    Two questions of scholarly and public policy interest concerning the well-documented racial difference in scores on achievement tests are How much of the racial difference ("gap") can be attributed to social-class differences between Blacks and Whites? and How much has the racial gap changed over the past 30 years? To address these questions, the authors analyzed evidence from seven probability samples of national populations of adolescents from 1965-1996. The Ss were in their last year of...

  • Closing the Achievement Gap: Examining the Role of Cognitive Developmental Level in Academic Achievement

    1/1/06 - Cooper, Jennifer A., Schleser, Robert

    The achievement gap in mathematics between African American and Caucasian students has been observed for several decades, though previous research has been unable to fully explain why the gap exists. Using a sample of 56 kindergarten and first grade students, this study examined the role that cognitive developmental level plays in the achievement gap. Results indicated that African American students scored significantly lower than the Caucasian students on a test of mathematical achievement...

  • Disentangling the racial test score gap: Probing the evidence in a large urban school district

    1/1/07 - Stiefel, Leanna, Schwartz, Amy Ellen, Ellen, Ingrid Gould

    We examine the size and distribution of the gap in test scores across races within New York City public schools and the factors that explain these gaps. While gaps are partially explained by differences in student characteristics, such as poverty, differences in schools attended are also important. At the same time, substantial within-school gaps remain and are only partly explained by differences in academic preparation across students from different race groups. Controlling for differences...

  • Ethnic and gender differences in mathematics achievement and in dispositions towards the study of mathematics

    1/1/06 - Birenbaum, Menucha, Nasser, Fadia

    The study examined the effects of gender and ethnicity on mathematics achievement on a national test and on dispositions (attitudes, perceived parental expectations, effort, and help) towards the study of mathematics of a representative sample of Jewish and Arab eighth graders in Israel. The results indicated a large ethnic gap in achievement in favor of the Jewish students. Significant gender--ethnicity interactions emerged whereby Arab girls, compared to Arab boys, attempted more items on...

  • Examining disparities in mathematics education: Achievement gap or opportunity gap?

    1/1/07 - Flores, Alfinio

    The so-called achievement gap in mathematics is reframed as a problem of unequal opportunities to learn experienced by many low-income students and many Latino and African American students. First, data are presented showing striking and persistent differences on standardized tests among students of different ethnic groups, and socioeconomic levels. Then evidence is presented demonstrating that opportunities to learn mathematics are not equally distributed among all students. Specifically...

  • Explanatory factors of the Black achievement gap in Montréal's public and private schools: A multivariate analysis

    1/1/09 - Caldas, Stephen J., Bernier, Sylvain, Marceau, Richard

    This exploratory analysis uses multiple regression modeling to help shed light on the correlates of the Black achievement gap in Montréal’s public and private secondary schools. Using school-level testing data from Québec’s Ministry of Education, the authors show that there is a Black achievement gap, and that this gap is highly associated with school socio-economic status, peer family structure, and average age of the student body’s...

  • Framing African American students' success and failure in urban settings: A typology for change

    1/1/08 - Lewis, Chance W., James, Marlon, Hancock, Stephen, Hill-Jackson, Valerie

    Grounded in critical race theory, this article seeks to frame the ideological positions of success and failure for African American students in urban school settings. First, we revisit national data and research literature that illustrate the ongoing urban Black-White achievement gap. Second, the Matrix of Achievement Paradigms is shared in an attempt to advance the conversation on African American students' achievement. It provides a serviceable organizational tool for framing African...

  • Health Disparities and Gaps in School Readiness

    1/1/05 - Currie, Janet

    The author documents pervasive racial disparities in the health of American children and analyzes how and how much those disparities contribute to racial gaps in school readiness. She explores a broad sample of health problems common to U.S. children, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, asthma, and lead poisoning, as well as maternal health problems and health-related behaviors that affect children's behavioral and cognitive readiness for school. If a health problem is to...

  • Monetary incentives in support of academic achievement: Results of a randomized field trial involving high-achieving, low-resource, ethnically diverse urban adolescents

    1/1/05 - Spencer, Margaret Beale, Noll, Elizabeth, Cassidy, Elaine

    Significant resources have been directed at understanding and alleviating the achievement gap in education. Most programs focused on this aim rely on a top-down approach, including funding for infrastructure improvement, curriculum development, class size, and teacher salaries. This article presents findings from a randomized field trial that evaluates a bottom-up approach in which high-achieving students of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds from poor families are given monetary...

  • Neuroscience Perspectives on Disparities in School Readiness and Cognitive Achievement

    1/1/05 - Noble, Kimberly G., Tottenham, Nim, Casey, B. J.

    This article allows readers to look at racial and ethnic disparities in school readiness from a neuroscience perspective. Although researchers have traditionally measured gaps in school readiness using broad achievement tests, they can now assess readiness in terms of more specific brain-based cognitive functions. Three neurocognitive systems--cognitive control, learning and memory, and reading--are essential for success in school. Thanks to recent advances in brain imaging, it is now...

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