Categories

Category: Poverty

  • Childhood poverty, chronic stress, and adult working memory

    1/1/09 - Evans, Gary W., Schamberg, Michelle A.

    The income–achievement gap is a formidable societal problem, but little is known about either neurocognitive or biological mechanisms that might account for income-related deficits in academic achievement. We show that childhood poverty is inversely related to working memory in young adults. Furthermore, this prospective relationship is mediated by elevated chronic stress during childhood. Chronic stress is measured by allostatic load, a biological marker of cumulative wear and tear...

  • Closing the achievement gap: Lessons from Illinois' golden spike high-poverty high-performing schools

    1/1/04 - McGee, Glenn W.

    The achievement gap is the single most critical issue in American education. This study illustrates the difference in academic performance between low-income children and their peers, between minority children and their classmates, and between those schools that serve a majority of children from low-income families and those that serve a more advantaged population. Using a research framework, the author identifies and examines Golden Spike schools--Illinois schools that have a sustained...

  • Closing the Mathematics Achievement Gap in High-Poverty Middle Schools: Enablers and Constraints

    1/1/06 - Balfanz, Robert, Byrnes, Vaughan

    The mathematics achievement levels of U.S. students fall far behind those of other developed nations; within the United States itself, the students who are falling behind come predominantly from high-poverty and high-minority areas. This article reports on a series of analyses that followed 4 cohorts of students from 3 such schools through the 5th to 8th grades, where studies have found the mathematics achievement gap to develop most rapidly. The cohorts followed in these analyses attended...

  • Disentangling the racial test score gap: Probing the evidence in a large urban school district

    1/1/07 - Stiefel, Leanna, Schwartz, Amy Ellen, Ellen, Ingrid Gould

    We examine the size and distribution of the gap in test scores across races within New York City public schools and the factors that explain these gaps. While gaps are partially explained by differences in student characteristics, such as poverty, differences in schools attended are also important. At the same time, substantial within-school gaps remain and are only partly explained by differences in academic preparation across students from different race groups. Controlling for differences...

  • Literacy Development of Students in Urban Schools:Research and Policy

    1/1/05 - J Flood & P.L Anders

    The issues concerning the teaching for reading in diverse disadvantaged community are important and difficult to deal with. This book is a must read for anyone teaching in an urban setting or preparing teachers to teach reading in diverse communities.

  • Poverty and educational achievement: why do children from low-income families tend to do less well at school?

    1/1/07 - West, Anne

    There is an achievement gap between children from poor family backgrounds and others; this is not unique to the UK, but found in all other countries of the OECD. This article examines the reasons why children from poorer backgrounds do not, on average, do as well academically at school as those from more advantaged backgrounds. It argues that the family, income and material resources are highly significant, although schools also play an important role. Possible implications for policy are...

  • Race, class, and educational opportunity: Trends in the socioilogy of education

    1/1/95 - Epps, Edgar G.

    Reviews 52 articles, published 1965–1995, on the effect of social class on educational opportunity for African Americans. Social allocation processes in schools, the relationship of poverty to academic achievement, and educational attainment are considered. The presence of a racial gap in education is also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA )

  • Reducing the gap: Success for all and the achievement of African American students

    1/1/06 - Slavin, Robert E., Madden, Nancy A.

    Success for All is a comprehensive reform model that uses cooperative learning, tutoring, family support services, and extensive professional development to help high-poverty schools succeed with their students. This article reviews research on Success for All with African American students, focusing on evidence that Success for All reduces the achievement gap between African American and White students. More than 40 studies, including a national randomized experiment, have found positive...

  • The transformative potential of teacher care as described by students in a higher education access initiative

    1/1/08 - Foster, Karen C.

    The "attitude-achievement gap" characterizing economically disadvantaged students of color is reexamined in a study of student perceptions of a higher education access program. Their descriptions of past and present experiences of teachers are contextualized in research citing the impact of stress, social stigma, and teacher misperceptions on economically disadvantaged students' capacity to engage with school. The contrast of their descriptions underscores the pivotal role that teachers play...

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