Categories

Category: Minority Groups

  • Accountability, Standards, and the Growing Achievement Gap: Lessons from the Past Half-Century

    1/1/06 - Harris, Douglas N., Herrington, Carolyn D.

    The rise of accountability policies during the early 1990s coincided with an increase in the achievement gap between white and minority students, reversing decades of steady improvement in outcome equity. This article explores the policies that helped to reduce the achievement gap before 1990, the effects of the subsequent shift toward accountability, and what can be learned from past successes to guide the future development of accountability systems. An extensive review of research...

  • Burden of acting neither White nor Black: Asian American identities and achievement in urban schools

    1/1/06 - Lew, Jamie

    Ogbu's theory of "burden of acting white" has been one of the most frequently cited studies to explain black and white achievement gap. However, emerging studies have argued that Ogbu's theory may be limited when examining variability of school achievement among black and white students. Research shows that in addition to culture, other social forces, such as class, peer networks, and school context may play a significant role when accounting for minority students' academic aspirations and...

  • Effects of Cultural and Social Structural Factors on the Achievement of White and Chinese American Students at School Transition Points

    1/1/06 - Pearce, Richard R.

    Chinese Americans' high levels of educational achievement have earned them attention as a "model minority" to be emulated by underachieving and underrepresented minority groups. However, the model minority analogy does not adequately explain how this achievement is realized, nor how such information can be used to help other groups close the achievement gap. The ability of both White and Chinese American students to weather school transitions and to remain on track for high achievement and...

  • Equity and literacy in the next millennium

    1/1/00 - Au, Kathryn H., Raphael, Taffy E.

    Considerable evidence documents the existence of a gap between the literacy achievement of students of diverse backgrounds and their mainstream peers. Given the increasing diversity of the population of students in classrooms in the US and around the world, the authors believe that the task of addressing the literacy achievement gap will become even more urgent in the new millennium.The challenges posed by the gap are considered in terms of 3 key groups of participants in the process of...

  • Evidence of a differential effect of ability grouping on the reading achievement growth of language-minority Hispanics

    1/1/08 - Robinson, Joseph P.

    Ability grouping is sometimes thought to exacerbate inequality by increasing achievement gaps; however, ability grouping may in fact benefit a fast growing and often marginalized student population: children from non-English-speaking home environments. The level-appropriate, small-group instruction received in reading ability groups may be particularly beneficial to these language-minority children, who are not regularly exposed to English at home. Focusing on Hispanics, who make up the...

  • Minority advances in test performance: A response to Jones

    1/1/86 - Wainer, Howard

    Suggests that the advances made by minorities in test performance reported by L. V. Jones (see record 1985-26568-001) must be interpreted with some skepticism in light of the self-selecting nature of the College Board Scholastic Achievement Test and the 120-point gap in scores on this test between Blacks and Whites. (1 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA )

  • More than one gap: Dropout rate gaps between and among Black, Hispanic, and White students

    1/1/08 - Carpenter, Dick M., II, Ramirez, Al

    The achievement gap, traditionally measured by test scores, also can be documented by dropout behavior. Examining dropout behavior among Black, White, and Hispanic students, with a particular focus on gaps within groups and not just between Whites and minorities, shows a clearer picture of the achievement gap. The results of our study show multiple achievement gaps both between and within groups, ultimately concluding that within-group gaps were often more significant than gaps between...

  • Putting the "affirm" into affirmative action: Preferential selection and academic performance

    1/1/00 - Brown, Ryan P., Charnsangavej, Tonyamas, Keough, Kelli A., Newman, Matthew L., Rentfrow, Peter J.

    Two studies explored the relation between academic performance and preferential selection. In Study 1, female participants were led to believe that they had been selected to be leaders in a team problem-solving task because of their gender, because of their gender and ability, or at random. Results showed that women who believed they had been selected because of their gender performed significantly worse on a subsequent problem-solving test than women who believed they had been selected at...

  • Racial Disparities and Discrimination in Education: What Do We know, How Do We Know It, and What Do We Need to Know?

    1/1/03 - Farkas, George

    This paper reviews what we have learned about racial discrepancies in education, with particular attention to those that might be attributable to discrimination. Empirical studies have found that, on average, African American, Latino, and American Indian children arrive at kindergarten or first grade with lower levels of oral language, prereading, and premathematics skills, as well as lesser general knowledge, than that possessed by White and Asian American children. African American...

  • Recursive processes in self-affirmation: Intervening to close the minority achievement gap

    1/1/09 - Cohen, Geoffrey L., Garcia, Julio, Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie, Apfel, Nancy, Brzustoski, Patricia

    A 2-year follow-up of a randomized field experiment previously reported in Science is presented. A subtle intervention to lesson minority students' psychological threat related to being negatively stereotyped in school was tested in an experiment conducted three times with three independent cohorts (N=133, 149, and 134). The intervention, a series of brief but structured writing assignments focusing students on self-affirming value, reduced the racial achievement gap. Over 2 years, the grade...

  • Reducing the Racial Achievement Gap: A Social-Psychological Intervention

    1/1/06 - Cohen, Geoffrey L., Garcia, Julio, Apfel, Nancy, Master, Allison

    Two randomized field experiments tested a social-psychological intervention designed to improve minority student performance and increase our understanding of how psychological threat mediates performance in chronically evaluative real-world environments. We expected that the risk of confirming a negative stereotype aimed at one's group could undermine academic performance in minority students by elevating their level of psychological threat. We tested whether such psychological threat could...

  • White enrollment in nonpublic schools, public school racial composition, and student performance

    1/1/00 - Bankston, Carl L., III, Caldas, Stephen J.

    Examined the relationship between the racial composition of public schools in school districts and the percentages of White students in nonpublic schools in those districts. Specifically, 2 questions were asked: (1) Is the enrollment of Whites in non-public schools associated with minority predominance in public schools? and (2) Is there an association between the enrollment of Whites outside of the public school system and the academic performance of students in the public school system...

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