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Category: Academic Achievement

  • Framing African American students' success and failure in urban settings: A typology for change

    1/1/08 - Lewis, Chance W., James, Marlon, Hancock, Stephen, Hill-Jackson, Valerie

    Grounded in critical race theory, this article seeks to frame the ideological positions of success and failure for African American students in urban school settings. First, we revisit national data and research literature that illustrate the ongoing urban Black-White achievement gap. Second, the Matrix of Achievement Paradigms is shared in an attempt to advance the conversation on African American students' achievement. It provides a serviceable organizational tool for framing African...

  • From Noncompetence to Exceptional Talent: Exploring the Range of Academic Achievement Within and Between Grade Levels

    1/1/05 - Gagné, Françoys

    This article analyzes the magnitude of individual differences in academic achievement and their growth over the first 9 years of schooling. The author anchors the widening-gap phenomenon on the theoretical recognition of large individual differences in learning pace, which logically leads over time to an increasing gap in knowledge and skills between the fastest and slowest learners. The achievement data used as evidence were borrowed from the developmental standard score (SS) norms of the...

  • From Research to Policy and Practice: The School of the 21st Century

    1/1/07 - Zigler, Edward, Finn-Stevenson, Matia

    Current education reform policies focus on raising academic achievement and ensuring that all students have access to high-quality education. Because the achievement gap is apparent even before children enter school, the authors believe that education reform must encompass the early childhood years. The current dialogue about universal preschool presents an opportunity to address the need for a national system for early care and education. The authors believe this system should provide...

  • From the ghetto to the ivory tower: Gendered effects of segregation on elite-college completion

    1/1/07 - Ehrmann, Nicholas

    Objectives: To explore the continuing consequences of segregation for students in elite colleges and test whether male and female students experience the effects of segregation in different ways. Methods: Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen (NLSF, 1999-2003) are used to predict the odds of elite-college graduation separately by gender. Theories on childhood gender socialization are addressed using OLS and logistic regression models to test for gendered pathways through...

  • Gap or Gaps: Challenging the Singular Definition of the Achievement Gap

    1/1/06 - Carpenter Ii, Dick M., Ramirez, Al, Severn, Laura

    For decades, researchers examined the ‘achievement gap’ between minority and nonminority students. This singular definition of achievement gap ignores important within-group differences. This article uses National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88) data to examine within-group differences and compares those across Latino, African American, and White populations. Results question the singular definition of achievement gap. Given the importance of how issues are defined, a singular...

  • Health Disparities and Gaps in School Readiness

    1/1/05 - Currie, Janet

    The author documents pervasive racial disparities in the health of American children and analyzes how and how much those disparities contribute to racial gaps in school readiness. She explores a broad sample of health problems common to U.S. children, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, asthma, and lead poisoning, as well as maternal health problems and health-related behaviors that affect children's behavioral and cognitive readiness for school. If a health problem is to...

  • Help Close the Achievement Gap

    1/1/05 - Peebles-Wilkins, Wilma

    Haskins and Rouse (2005) propose high-quality educational interventions that target both the parent and the child. There is an emphasis on collaborating with parents to the maximum degree possible. The authors review a number of highly successful early intervention programs with different approaches and acknowledge that several programs that focus solely on the children also yield successful outcomes. In addition to the more traditional educational interventions, the authors recommend...

  • Helping Struggling Middle School Literacy Learners Achieve Success

    1/1/09 - Palumbo, Anthony, Sanacore, Joseph

    Teachers can help minority children close the academic achievement gap in intermediate and middle school by combining literacy instruction and content-area material. This connection improves reading achievement and increases curriculum knowledge, even if students have previously experienced difficulty with primary school reading. Fortunately, upper-elementary and middle-level learners are still naturally curious, are developing cognitively, and have acquired some basic reading skills...

  • High school reform and Black male students: Limits and possibilies of policy and practice

    1/1/03 - Jordan, Will J., Cooper, Robert

    An infusion of federal funding and philanthropic support for high schools has sparked an unprecedented number of educational reforms. Still, few initiatives confront the unique conditions facing Black male students. Despite efforts to reform ineffective schools and foster academic achievement for all students, there continues to be a lingering gap between affluent and poor as well as White and Black subgroups. This article explores the complexities of these issues. The authors examine the...

  • High-Stakes Accountability, State Oversight, and Educational Equity

    1/1/04 - Mintrop, Heinrich

    This article argues that outcome-based accountability systems are not likely to close the achievement gap. Using California as an example, it suggests that states need to pay closer attention to learning conditions and powerful programs that deliver quality interventions. The article describes the design of the California low-performing schools program, discusses reasons for its limited effectiveness, and suggests design features that may increase the chances for the state to reach its...

  • High-Stakes Testing: Does the California High School Exit Exam Measure Up?

    1/1/05 - Callet, Valerie J.

    In 2002, President George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act. In addition to providing additional funding for schools and encouraging local autonomy, the new law focuses on accountability in an attempt to close the achievement gap for all students, leaving no child behind. Perhaps the most striking manifestation of Bush's new law is the amplified attention on high-stakes testing as a means to demonstrate accountability. The California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) is California's...

  • Hispanic Educational Attainment: The Effects of Family Background and Nativity

    1/1/95 - Wojtkiewicz, Roger A., Donato, Katharine M.

    This article investigates two sources of the difference in educational attainment between Hispanics and non-Hispanics: family background and nativity. Hispanics have fewer of the family background characteristics that lead to higher educational attainment. In addition, Hispanics are much more likely to be foreign born, a characteristic related to lower educational attainment. Authors' study examines the degree to which these differences in family background and nativity explain differences...

  • Impact of attitudes of peers on language achievement: Gender differences

    1/1/07 - Van de Gaer, Eva, Pustjens, Heidi, Van Damme, Jan, De Munter, Agnes

    The authors examined whether gender differences in language achievement were related not only to gender differences in attitudes toward schooling but also to the attitudes toward schooling of peers (i.e., peers in classes and in schools). The authors used multilevel analysis on data compiled from a longitudinal research project in secondary education. The primary results revealed that all boys who had negative school-related attitudes were underachievers in language. Furthermore, boys were...

  • INCREASING PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AMONG ADOLESCENT AFRICAN AMERICAN MALES

    1/1/07 - Martin, Don, Martin, Magy, Gibson, Suzanne Semivan, Wilkins, Jonathan

    African American adolescents disproportionately perform poorly compared to peers in both behavioral and academic aspects of their educational experience. In this study, African American male students participated in an after-school program involving tutoring, group counseling, and various enrichment activities. All students were assessed regarding their behavioral changes using attendance, discipline referrals, suspensions, and expulsions reports. The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT...

  • Inequality in Preschool Education and School Readiness

    1/1/04 - Magnuson, Katherine A., Meyers, Marcia K., Ruhm, Christopher J., Waldfogel, Jane

    Attendance in U.S. preschools has risen substantially in recent decades, but gaps in enrollment between children from advantaged and disadvantaged families remain. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999, we analyze the effect of participation in child care and early education on children's school readiness as measured by early reading and math skills in kindergarten and first grade. We find that children who attended a center or school-based...

  • Is No Child Left Behind 'Wise Schooling' for African American Male Students?

    1/1/03 - McMillian, Monique

    To improve achievement among African American students, education professions must pay special attention to African American male achievement and reframe the academic achievement gap as a treatment gap. Engagement studies suggest that African American students, and African American boys in particular, are susceptible to academic disengagement. Specifically, research (Steele and Aronson 1995; Osborne 1995) suggests that education professionals' "stereotypes about ability" are partly...

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